Fluid Piping Systems

This guide contains best practices for piping for the primary Vannes …. insulated switchgear and control fluid flow in a pipe system. ….

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Fluid Piping Systems
TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • 1 INTRODUCTION… 4
  • 1.1 BACKGROUND … 4
  • 2 FUNDAMENTALS … 5
  • 2.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS… 5
  • 2.2 TYPES OF FLUID FLOW:… 5
  • 2.3 PRESSURE LOSS IN PIPES… 6
  • 2.4 STANDARD PIPE DIMENSIONS … 8
  • 2.5 PRESSURE DROP IN COMPONENTS IN PIPE SYSTEMS… 8
  • 2.6 VALVES … 9
  • 3 COMPRESSED AIR PIPING… 13
  • 3.1 INTRODUCTION … 13
  • 3.2 PIPING MATERIALS … 13
  • 3.3 COMPRESSOR DISCHARGE PIPING… 13
  • 3.4 PRESSURE DROP … 14
  • 3.5 PIPING SYSTEM DESIGN … 15
  • 3.6 COMPRESSED AIR LEAKAGE … 16
  • 3.7 LEAKAGE REDUCTION… 17
  • 4 STEAM DISTRIBUTION … 19
  • 4.1 INTRODUCTION … 19
  • 4.2 ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS… 19
  • 4.3 SELECTION OF PIPE SIZE … 20
  • 4.4 PIPING INSTALLATION… 23
  • 5 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM … 24
  • 5.1 RECOMMENDED VELOCITIES… 24
  • 5.2 RECOMMENDED WATER FLOW VELOCITY ON SUCTION SIDE OF PUMP… 25
  • 6 THERMAL INSULATION… 26
  • 6.1 INTRODUCTION … 26
  • 6.2 HEAT LOSSES FROM PIPE SURFACES … 27
  • 6.3 CALCULATION OF INSULATION THICKNESS … 27
  • 6.4 INSULATION MATERIAL… 29
  • 6.5 RECOMMENDED VALUES OF COLD AND HOT INSULATION… 30
  • 6.6 ECONOMIC THICKNESS OF INSULATION … 31
  • 7 CASE STUDIES … 34
  • 7.1 PRESSURE DROP REDUCTION IN WATER PUMPING … 34
  • 7.2 PRESSURE DROP REDUCTION IN COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM… 35
  • 7.3 REPLACEMENT OF GLOBE VALVES WITH BUTTERFLY VALVES… 35
  • 7.4 REDUCTION IN PRESSURE DROP IN THE COMPRESSED AIR NETWORK … 36
  • 7.5 THERMAL INSULATION IN STEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM … 37
  • 7.6 COMPRESSED AIR LEAKAGE REDUCTION AT HEAVY ENGINEERING PLANT… 37
  • 7.7 REDUCING STEAM HEADER PRESSURE … 38
  • 7.8 INSULATION OF STEAM PIPELINES… 39
  • 7.9 COOLING WATER PIPING SYSTEM MODIFICATION TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY… 40
  • 7.10 EXCESSIVE PRESSURE DROP DUE TO INADEQUATE PIPING-CHILLED WATER SYSTEM… 40
  • ANNEXURE-1: REFERENCES … 43
  • List of Figures
  • Figure 2-1: Estimation of friction factor …7
  • Figure 3-1: Pressure drop calculations …15
  • Figure 3-2: Types o piping layout…16
  • Figure 4-1: Steam pipe sizing …21
  • Figure 6-1: Economic insulation thickness…26
  • Figure 6-2: Insulated pipe section…28
  • Table 6-3: Thermal conductivity of hot insulation…29
  • Figure 7-1: Chilled water system piping schematic…34
  • Figure 7-2: Compressed air system piping schematic …35
  • Figure 7-3: Pressure drop of Globe & Butterfly Valves …36
  • Figure 7-4: Chiller performance …41
  • List of Tables
  • Table 2-1: Minor loss coefficients … 9
  • Table 3-1: Cost of Compressed Air Leakage… 18
  • Table 4-1: Recommended pipe sizes for steam … 22
  • Table 5-1: Recommended velocities… 24
  • Table 5-2:Calculation of System Head Requirement for a Cooling Application (for different pipe sizes)… 24
  • Table 5-3: Recommended suction velocities … 25
  • Table 6-1: Heat loss from Fluid inside Pipe (W/m)… 27
  • Table 6-2: Coefficients A, B for estimating ‘h’ (in W/m2-K)… 28
  • Table 6-3: Insulation thickness for refrigeration systems … 30
  • Table 6-4Recommended Thickness of Insulation (inches)… 31
  • Table 6-5: Economic insulation thickness calculations… 32
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