Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications

using a comparator instead of an operational amplifier. There are ways to ensure the safety … Knowledge of operational amplifiers required to use this guide. ….

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Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications, Contents

  • INTRODUCTION…7
  • Computation Control Instrumentation …7
  • The Feedback Technique …7
  • Notation and Terminology…8
  • Input Terminals…9
  • Output Terminals … 9
  • Power Connections …10
  • Summary of Notation…10
  • Electrical Circuit Models …10
  • Circuit Notation … 11
  • The Ideal Operational Amplifier …12
  • Defining the Ideal Operational Amplifier…12
  • A Summing Point Restraint…13
  • CIRCUITS AND ANALYSES USING THE IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER…14
  • The Desirability of Feedback …14
  • Two Important Feedback Circuits …15
  • Voltage Follower … 15
  • Non-Inverting Amplifier … 17
  • INVERTING AMPLIFIER … 18
  • Intuitive Analysis Techniques…19
  • Current Output… 20
  • Reactive Elements…20
  • Integrator…21
  • Differentiator…21
  • Voltage Adder…23
  • Scaling Summer … 23
  • Combining Circuit Functions…24
  • Differential Input Amplifier…24
  • Balanced Amplifier…25
  • Ideal-Real Comparison … 27
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF PRACTICAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS…29
  • Open Loop Characteristics …29
  • Open Loop Operation …30
  • Output Limiting …30
  • FREQUENCY DEPENDENT PROPERTIES …31
  • Introduction…31
  • Open Loop Gain and the Bode Plot …31
  • Bode Plot Construction…31
  • Closed Loop Gain…32
  • Stability…33
  • Compensation … 33
  • Compensation Changes … 34
  • Bandwidth…35
  • Loop Gain…35
  • The Significance of Loop Gain…36
  • BODE PLOTS AND BASIC PRACTICAL CIRCUITRY…37
  • Voltage Follower … 37
  • Inverter … 37
  • X1000 Amplifier … 38
  • Differentiator… 38
  • INTEGRATOR…40
  • OTHER IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS… 41
  • Summing Point Restraints … 41
  • Closed Loop Impedance Levels… 42
  • Output Impedance … 42
  • Input Impedance… 43
  • Differential Inputs and Common Mode Rejection… 44
  • The Common Mode Voltage Limit … 44
  • Offset… 44
  • Drift 45
  • Capacitive Loading … 45
  • VOLTAGE DETECTORS AND COMPARATORS … 46
  • Voltage Limiting Operational Amplifiers … 46
  • THE VOLTAGE FOLLOWER … 49
  • BUFFERS AND ISOLATION AMPLIFIERS … 50
  • Inverting Buffer Adjustable Gain … 50
  • Balanced Output… 50
  • VOLTAGE AND CURRENT REFERENCES… 50
  • Isolated Standard Cell … 51
  • Constant Current Generator … 51
  • Buffer Variation… 52
  • Presettable Voltage Source … 52
  • Reference Voltage Supply … 52
  • THE NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER …53
  • THE INVERTING AMPLIFIER … 54
  • INTEGRATORS … 55
  • PRACTICAL INTEGRATORS… 55
  • Simple Integrators … 56
  • Summing Integrator … 58
  • Double Integrator… 58
  • Differential Integrator … 59
  • AC Integrator … 59
  • Augmenting Integrator … 59
  • DIFFERENTIATORS… 61
  • With “Stop” … 61
  • Low Noise … 62
  • Augmented Differentiator… 62
  • THE VOLTAGE SUMMER… 63
  • SUMMING AND AVERAGING AMPLIFIERS… 64
  • Adder… 64
  • Scaling Adder … 64
  • Direct Addition … 65
  • Averager… 65
  • Weighted Average … 66
  • THE DIFFERENTIAL INPUT AMPLIFIER… 67
  • Adder-Subtractor or Floating Input Combiner … 68
  • THE DIFFERENTIAL (BALANCED) OUTPUT AMPLIFIER…69
  • DC AMPLIFIERS …70
  • Simple Inverting sign changing amplifier…70
  • Chopper Stabilized …70
  • Simple Gain Control…70
  • Linear Gain Control …71
  • Simple Non-Inverting … 71
  • Power Booster … 71
  • Differential Output…73
  • Gain Control … 73
  • Inverting Gain Control…73
  • DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS … 74
  • Subtractor…74
  • Difference Amplifier … 74
  • Common Mode Rejection …75
  • Differential Input-Output…75
  • AC AMPLIFIERS …76
  • DC Amplifiers with Blocking Capacitors …76
  • Simple Amplifier …76
  • Single Supply …76
  • Non-Inverting…77
  • Double Rolloff…77
  • AC Preamplifier …78
  • CURRENT OUTPUT DEVICES…79
  • Feedback Loop…79
  • Simple Meter Amplifier…79
  • Meter Amplifier …80
  • Current Injector…80
  • Linear Current Source …81
  • Deflection Coil Driver…82
  • OSCILLATORS AND MULTI VIBRATORS …83
  • Simple Oscillator…83
  • Wien Bridge Oscillator …83
  • PHASE LEAD AND LAG NETWORKS …84
  • Lag Element … 84
  • Adjustable Lag…84
  • Lag value linear with R setting …85
  • Adjustable Lead…85
  • Lead-Lag … 86
  • Time Delay … 86
  • ADDITIONAL CIRCUITS …87
  • Absolute Value …87
  • Peak Follower…87
  • Precision Rectifier…88
  • AC to DC Converter…88
  • Full Wave Rectifier …89
  • Rate Limiter … 89
  • Time Delay … 90
  • Selective Amplifier … 91
  • SECTION III: SELECTING THE PROPER OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER …92
  • Focus on Limiting Specifications… 92
  • Avoid Closed Loop vs. Open Loop Confusion… 92
  • Selection Check List … 92
  • Assistance Available from Texas Instruments… 93
  • References… 93
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