Instrument Flying Handbook

Aircraft flight, basic flight maneuvers used in IMC, attitude instrument flying for helicopters, navigation, night flying requires pilots ….

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Instrument Flying Handbook
Table of Contents

  • Preface…iii
  • Acknowledgements …v
  • Introduction …vii
  • Is an Instrument Rating Necessary? …vii
  • Instrument Rating Requirements …vii
  • Training for the Instrument Rating …vii
  • Maintaining the Instrument Rating…viii
  • Chapter 1
  • Human Factors …1-1
  • Introduction …1-1
  • Sensory Systems for Orientation …1-2
  • Eyes …1-2
  • Vision Under Dim and Bright Illumination …1-3
  • Ears …1-4
  • Nerves …1-5
  • Illusions Leading to Spatial Disorientation …1-5
  • Vestibular Illusions …1-5
  • The Leans …1-5
  • Coriolis Illusion …1-6
  • Graveyard Spiral …1-6
  • Somatogravic Illusion …1-6
  • Inversion Illusion …1-6
  • Elevator Illusion …1-6
  • Visual Illusions …1-7
  • False Horizon …1-7
  • Autokinesis …1-7
  • Postural Considerations …1-7
  • Demonstration of Spatial Disorientation …1-7
  • Climbing While Accelerating …1-8
  • Climbing While Turning …1-8
  • Diving While Turning …1-8
  • Tilting to Right or Left …1-8
  • Reversal of Motion …1-8
  • Diving or Rolling Beyond the Vertical Plane …1-8
  • Coping with Spatial Disorientation …1-8
  • Optical Illusions …1-9
  • Runway Width Illusion …1-9
  • Runway and Terrain Slopes Illusion …1-9
  • Featureless Terrain Illusion …1-9
  • Water Refraction …1-9
  • Haze …1-9
  • Fog …1-9
  • Ground Lighting Illusions …1-9
  • How To Prevent Landing Errors Due To Optical
  • Illusions …1-9
  • Physiological and Psychological Factors …1-11
  • Stress …1-11
  • Medical Factors …1-12
  • Alcohol …1-12
  • Fatigue …1-12
  • Acute Fatigue …1-12
  • Chronic Fatigue …1-13
  • IMSAFE Checklist …1-13
  • Hazard Identification …1-13
  • Situation 1 …1-13
  • Situation 2 …1-13
  • Risk Analysis …1-13
  • Crew Resource Management (CRM) and Single-Pilot
  • Resource Management (SRM) …1-14
  • Situational Awareness …1-14
  • Flight Deck Resource Management …1-14
  • Human Resources …1-14
  • Equipment …1-14
  • Information Workload …1-14
  • Task Management …1-15
  • Aeronautical Decision-Making (ADM) …1-15
  • The Decision-Making Process…1-16
  • Defining the Problem …1-16
  • Choosing a Course of Action …1-16
  • Implementing the Decision and Evaluating
  • the Outcome …1-16
  • Improper Decision-Making Outcomes …1-16
  • Models for Practicing ADM …1-17
  • Perceive, Process, Perform …1-17
  • The DECIDE Model …1-17
  • Hazardous Attitudes and Antidotes …1-18
  • Chapter 2
  • Aerodynamic Factors …2-1
  • Introduction …2-1
  • The Wing …2-2
  • Review of Basic Aerodynamics …2-2
  • The Four Forces…2-2
  • Lift …2-2
  • Weight …2-3
  • Thrust …2-3
  • Drag …2-3
  • Newton’s First Law, the Law of Inertia …2-4
  • Newton’s Second Law, the Law of Momentum…2-4
  • Newton’s Third Law, the Law of Reaction …2-4
  • Atmosphere …2-4
  • Layers of the Atmosphere …2-5
  • International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) …2-5
  • Pressure Altitude …2-5
  • Density Altitude …2-5
  • Lift …2-6
  • Pitch/Power Relationship …2-6
  • Drag Curves …2-6
  • Regions of Command …2-7
  • Control Characteristics …2-7
  • Speed Stability …2-7
  • Normal Command …2-7
  • Reversed Command …2-8
  • Trim …2-8
  • Slow-Speed Flight …2-8
  • Small Airplanes …2-9
  • Large Airplanes …2-9
  • Climbs …2-10
  • Acceleration in Cruise Flight …2-10
  • Turns …2-10
  • Rate of Turn…2-10
  • Radius of Turn …2-11
  • Coordination of Rudder and Aileron Controls …2-11
  • Load Factor …2-11
  • Icing …2-12
  • Types of Icing …2-13
  • Structural Icing …2-13
  • Induction Icing …2-13
  • Clear Ice …2-13
  • Rime Ice …2-14
  • Mixed Ice …2-14
  • General Effects of Icing on Airfoils …2-14
  • Piper PA-34-200T (Des Moines, Iowa) …2-15
  • Tailplane Stall Symptoms …2-16
  • Propeller Icing …2-16
  • Effects of Icing on Critical Aircraft Systems …2-16
  • Flight Instruments …2-16
  • Stall Warning Systems …2-16
  • Windshields …2-16
  • Antenna Icing …2-17
  • Summary …2-17
  • Chapter 3
  • Flight Instruments …3-1
  • Introduction …3-1
  • Pitot/Static Systems …3-2
  • Static Pressure …3-2
  • Blockage Considerations …3-2
  • Indications of Pitot Tube Blockage …3-3
  • Indications from Static Port Blockage …3-3
  • Effects of Flight Conditions …3-3
  • Pitot/Static Instruments …3-3
  • Sensitive Altimeter …3-3
  • Principle of Operation …3-3
  • Altimeter Errors …3-4
  • Cold Weather Altimeter Errors …3-5
  • ICAO Cold Temperature Error Table …3-5
  • Nonstandard Pressure on an Altimeter …3-6
  • Altimeter Enhancements (Encoding) …3-7
  • Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) ..3-7
  • Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) …3-8
  • Dynamic Pressure Type Instruments …3-8
  • Airspeed Indicator (ASI) …3-8
  • Types of Airspeed …3-9
  • Airspeed Color Codes …3-10
  • Magnetism …3-10
  • The Basic Aviation Magnetic Compass …3-11
  • Magnetic Compass Overview …3-11
  • Magnetic Compass Induced Errors …3-12
  • The Vertical Card Magnetic Compass …3-14
  • The Flux Gate Compass System …3-14
  • Remote Indicating Compass …3-15
  • Gyroscopic Systems …3-16
  • Power Sources …3-16
  • Pneumatic Systems …3-16
  • Vacuum Pump Systems …3-17
  • Electrical Systems …3-18
  • Gyroscopic Instruments …3-18
  • Attitude Indicators …3-18
  • Heading Indicators …3-19
  • Turn Indicators …3-20
  • Turn-and-Slip Indicator …3-20
  • Turn Coordinator …3-21
  • Flight Support Systems …3-22
  • Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) …3-22
  • Air Data Computer (ADC) …3-22
  • Analog Pictorial Displays …3-22
  • Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) …3-22
  • Attitude Direction Indicator (ADI) …3-23
  • Flight Director System (FDS) …3-23
  • Integrated Flight Control System …3-24
  • Autopilot Systems …3-24
  • Flight Management Systems (FMS) …3-25
  • Electronic Flight Instrument Systems …3-27
  • Primary Flight Display (PFD) …3-27
  • Synthetic Vision …3-27
  • Multi-Function Display (MFD) …3-28
  • Advanced Technology Systems …3-28
  • Automatic Dependent Surveillance—
  • Broadcast (ADS-B) …3-28
  • Safety Systems …3-30
  • Radio Altimeters…3-30
  • Traffic Advisory Systems …3-31
  • Traffic Information System …3-31
  • Traffic Alert Systems …3-31
  • Traffic Avoidance Systems …3-31
  • Terrain Alerting Systems …3-34
  • Required Navigation Instrument System Inspection …3-34
  • Systems Preflight Procedures …3-34
  • Before Engine Start …3-36
  • After Engine Start …3-37
  • Taxiing and Takeoff …3-37
  • Engine Shut Down …3-37
  • Chapter 4, Section I
  • Airplane Attitude Instrument Flying
  • Using Analog Instrumentation …4-1
  • Introduction …4-1
  • Learning Methods …4-2
  • Attitude Instrument Flying Using the Control and
  • Performance Method …4-2
  • Control Instruments …4-2
  • Performance Instruments …4-2
  • Navigation Instruments …4-2
  • Procedural Steps in Using Control and
  • Performance …4-2
  • Aircraft Control During Instrument Flight …4-3
  • Attitude Instrument Flying Using the Primary and
  • Supporting Method …4-4
  • Pitch Control …4-4
  • Bank Control …4-7
  • Power Control …4-8
  • Trim Control …4-8
  • Airplane Trim …4-8
  • Helicopter Trim …4-10
  • Example of Primary and Support Instruments …4-10
  • Fundamental Skills…4-10
  • Instrument Cross-Check …4-10
  • Common Cross-Check Errors …4-11
  • Instrument Interpretation …4-13
  • Chapter 4, Section II
  • Airplane Attitude Instrument Flying
  • Using an Electronic Flight Display …4-15
  • Introduction …4-15
  • Learning Methods …4-16
  • Control and Performance Method …4-18
  • Control Instruments …4-18
  • Performance Instruments …4-19
  • Navigation Instruments …4-19
  • The Four-Step Process Used to Change Attitude …4-20
  • Establish …4-20
  • Trim …4-20
  • Cross-Check …4-20
  • Adjust …4-20
  • Applying the Four-Step Process …4-20
  • Pitch Control …4-20
  • Bank Control …4-20
  • Power Control …4-21
  • Attitude Instrument Flying—Primary and
  • Supporting Method …4-21
  • Pitch Control …4-21
  • Straight-and-Level Flight …4-22
  • Primary Pitch …4-22
  • Primary Bank …4-23
  • Primary Yaw …4-23
  • Primary Power …4-23
  • Fundamental Skills of Attitude Instrument Flying …4-23
  • Instrument Cross-Check …4-24
  • Scanning Techniques …4-24
  • Selected Radial Cross-Check …4-24
  • Starting the Scan …4-24
  • Trend Indicators …4-26
  • Common Errors …4-28
  • Fixation …4-28
  • Omission …4-28
  • Emphasis …4-28
  • Chapter 5, Section I
  • Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers
  • Using Analog Instrumentation …5-1
  • Introduction …5-1
  • Straight-and-Level Flight …5-2
  • Pitch Control …5-2
  • Attitude Indicator …5-2
  • Altimeter …5-3
  • Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) …5-4
  • Airspeed Indicator (ASI) …5-6
  • Bank Control …5-6
  • Attitude Indicator …5-6
  • Heading Indicator …5-7
  • Turn Coordinator …5-7
  • Turn-and-Slip Indicator (Needle and Ball) …5-8
  • Power Control …5-8
  • Power Settings …5-9
  • Airspeed Changes in Straight-and-Level Flight …5-11
  • Trim Technique …5-12
  • Common Errors in Straight-and-Level Flight …5-12
  • Pitch …5-12
  • Heading …5-13
  • Power …5-13
  • Trim …5-13
  • Straight Climbs and Descents …5-14
  • Climbs …5-14
  • Entry …5-14
  • Leveling Off …5-16
  • Descents…5-16
  • Entry …5-17
  • Leveling Off …5-17
  • Common Errors in Straight Climbs and Descents…5-17
  • Turns …5-19
  • Standard Rate Turns …5-19
  • Turns to Predetermined Headings …5-20
  • Timed Turns …5-21
  • Compass Turns …5-21
  • Steep Turns …5-22
  • Climbing and Descending Turns …5-24
  • Change of Airspeed During Turns …5-24
  • Common Errors in Turns …5-25
  • Pitch …5-25
  • Bank …5-25
  • Power …5-26
  • Trim …5-26
  • Errors During Compass Turns …5-26
  • Approach to Stall …5-26
  • Unusual Attitudes and Recoveries …5-26
  • Recognizing Unusual Attitudes …5-27
  • Recovery from Unusual Attitudes …5-27
  • Nose-High Attitudes …5-27
  • Nose-Low Attitudes …5-28
  • Common Errors in Unusual Attitudes …5-28
  • Instrument Takeoff …5-29
  • Common Errors in Instrument Takeoffs …5-29
  • Basic Instrument Flight Patterns …5-30
  • Racetrack Pattern …5-30
  • Procedure Turn …5-30
  • Standard 45° Procedure Turn …5-30
  • 80/260 Procedure Turn …5-31
  • Teardrop Patterns …5-31
  • Circling Approach Patterns …5-32
  • Pattern I …5-32
  • Pattern II …5-32
  • Chapter 5, Section II
  • Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers
  • Using an Electronic Flight Display …5-33
  • Introduction …5-33
  • Straight-and-Level Flight …5-34
  • Pitch Control …5-34
  • Attitude Indicator …5-34
  • Altimeter …5-36
  • Partial Panel Flight …5-36
  • VSI Tape …5-36
  • Airspeed Indicator (ASI) …5-37
  • Bank Control …5-37
  • Attitude Indicator …5-37
  • Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) …5-38
  • Heading Indicator …5-38
  • Turn Rate Indicator …5-38
  • Slip/Skid Indicator …5-39
  • Power Control …5-39
  • Power Settings …5-39
  • Airspeed Changes in Straight-and-Level Flight …5-40
  • Trim Technique …5-43
  • Common Errors in Straight-and-Level Flight …5-43
  • Pitch …5-43
  • Heading …5-44
  • Power …5-45
  • Trim …5-45
  • Straight Climbs and Descents …5-46
  • Entry …5-46
  • Constant Airspeed Climb From Cruise
  • Airspeed …5-46
  • Constant Airspeed Climb from Established
  • Airspeed …5-47
  • Constant Rate Climbs …5-47
  • Leveling Off …5-48
  • Descents…5-49
  • Entry …5-49
  • Leveling Off …5-50
  • Common Errors in Straight Climbs and Descents…5-50
  • Turns …5-51
  • Standard Rate Turns …5-51
  • Establishing A Standard Rate Turn …5-51
  • Common Errors …5-51
  • Turns to Predetermined Headings …5-52
  • Page 15
  • xiii
  • Timed Turns …5-53
  • Compass Turns …5-53
  • Steep Turns …5-53
  • Unusual Attitude Recovery Protection …5-55
  • Common Errors Leading to Unusual Attitudes …5-58
  • Instrument Takeoff …5-60
  • Common Errors in Instrument Takeoffs …5-61
  • Basic Instrument Flight Patterns …5-61
  • Chapter 6
  • Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying …6-1
  • Introduction …6-1
  • Flight Instruments …6-2
  • Instrument Flight …6-2
  • Instrument Cross-Check …6-2
  • Instrument Interpretation …6-3
  • Aircraft Control …6-3
  • Straight-and-Level Flight …6-3
  • Pitch Control …6-3
  • Attitude Indicator …6-3
  • Altimeter …6-4
  • Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) …6-5
  • Airspeed Indicator …6-5
  • Bank Control …6-5
  • Attitude Indicator …6-5
  • Heading Indicator …6-6
  • Turn Indicator …6-7
  • Common Errors During Straight-and-Level Flight …6-7
  • Power Control During Straight-and-Level Flight …6-7
  • Common Errors During Airspeed Changes…6-10
  • Straight Climbs (Constant Airspeed and
  • Constant Rate) …6-10
  • Entry …6-10
  • Level Off …6-12
  • Straight Descents (Constant Airspeed and
  • Constant Rate) …6-12
  • Entry …6-12
  • Level Off …6-13
  • Common Errors During Straight Climbs and
  • Descents…6-13
  • Turns …6-13
  • Turn to a Predetermined Heading …6-13
  • Timed Turns …6-13
  • Change of Airspeed in Turns…6-14
  • Compass Turns …6-15
  • 30° Bank Turn…6-15
  • Climbing and Descending Turns …6-15
  • Common Errors During Turns …6-15
  • Unusual Attitudes …6-16
  • Common Errors During Unusual Attitude
  • Recoveries …6-16
  • Emergencies …6-16
  • Autorotations …6-17
  • Common Errors During Autorotations …6-17
  • Servo Failure …6-17
  • Instrument Takeoff …6-17
  • Common Errors During Instrument Takeoffs …6-18
  • Changing Technology …6-18
  • Chapter 7
  • Navigation Systems …7-1
  • Introduction …7-1
  • Basic Radio Principles …7-2
  • How Radio Waves Propagate …7-2
  • Ground Wave …7-2
  • Sky Wave …7-2
  • Space Wave …7-2
  • Disturbances to Radio Wave Reception …7-3
  • Traditional Navigation Systems …7-3
  • Nondirectional Radio Beacon (NDB) …7-3
  • NDB Components …7-3
  • ADF Components …7-3
  • Function of ADF …7-4
  • Operational Errors of ADF …7-8
  • Very High Frequency Omnidirectional
  • Range (VOR) …7-8
  • VOR Components …7-10
  • Function of VOR …7-12
  • VOR Operational Errors …7-14
  • VOR Accuracy …7-16
  • VOR Receiver Accuracy Check …7-16
  • VOR Test Facility (VOT) …7-16
  • Certified Checkpoints …7-16
  • Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) …7-16
  • DME Components …7-17
  • Function of DME …7-17
  • DME Arc …7-17
  • Intercepting Lead Radials …7-19
  • DME Errors …7-19
  • Area Navigation (RNAV) …7-19
  • VOR/DME RNAV …7-23
  • VOR/DME RNAV Components …7-23
  • Function of VOR/DME RNAV …7-23
  • VOR/DME RNAV Errors …7-24
  • Long Range Navigation (LORAN) …7-24
  • LORAN Components …7-25
  • Function of LORAN …7-26
  • LORAN Errors …7-26
  • Advanced Technologies …7-26
  • Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)…7-26
  • Global Positioning System (GPS) …7-27
  • GPS Components …7-27
  • Function of GPS …7-28
  • GPS Substitution …7-28
  • GPS Substitution for ADF or DME …7-29
  • To Determine Aircraft Position Over a DME
  • Fix: …7-29
  • To Fly a DME Arc: …7-29
  • To Navigate TO or FROM an NDB/Compass
  • Locator: …7-29
  • To Determine Aircraft Position Over an NDB/
  • Compass Locator: …7-29
  • To Determine Aircraft Position Over a Fix Made
  • up of an NDB/Compass Locator Bearing
  • Crossing a VOR/LOC Course: …7-30
  • To Hold Over an NDB/Compass Locator: …7-30
  • IFR Flight Using GPS …7-30
  • GPS Instrument Approaches …7-31
  • Departures and Instrument Departure
  • Procedures (DPs) …7-33
  • GPS Errors …7-33
  • System Status …7-33
  • GPS Familiarization …7-34
  • Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) …7-34
  • Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) …7-34
  • General Requirements …7-34
  • Instrument Approach Capabilities …7-36
  • Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) …7-36
  • Inertial Navigation System (INS) …7-36
  • INS Components …7-37
  • INS Errors …7-37
  • Instrument Approach Systems …7-37
  • Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) …7-37
  • ILS Components …7-39
  • Approach Lighting Systems (ALS) …7-40
  • ILS Airborne Components …7-42
  • ILS Function …7-42
  • ILS Errors …7-44
  • Marker Beacons …7-44
  • Operational Errors …7-45
  • Simplified Directional Facility (SDF) …7-45
  • Localizer Type Directional Aid (LDA) …7-45
  • Microwave Landing System (MLS) …7-45
  • Approach Azimuth Guidance …7-45
  • Required Navigation Performance …7-46
  • Flight Management Systems (FMS) …7-48
  • Function of FMS …7-48
  • Head-Up Display (HUD) …7-49
  • Radar Navigation (Ground Based) …7-49
  • Functions of Radar Navigation…7-49
  • Airport Surface Detection Equipment …7-50
  • Radar Limitations …7-50
  • Chapter 8
  • The National Airspace System …8-1
  • Introduction …8-1
  • Airspace Classification …8-2
  • Special Use Airspace …8-2
  • Federal Airways …8-4
  • Other Routing …8-5
  • IFR En Route Charts …8-6
  • Airport Information …8-6
  • Charted IFR Altitudes …8-6
  • Navigation Features …8-7
  • Types of NAVAIDs …8-7
  • Identifying Intersections …8-7
  • Other Route Information …8-10
  • Weather Information and Communication
  • Features …8-10
  • New Technologies …8-10
  • Terminal Procedures Publications …8-12
  • Departure Procedures (DPs) …8-12
  • Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) …8-12
  • Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) Charts …8-12
  • Margin Identification …8-12
  • The Pilot Briefing …8-16
  • The Plan View …8-16
  • Terminal Arrival Area (TAA) …8-18
  • Course Reversal Elements in Plan View and
  • Profile View …8-20
  • Procedure Turns …8-20
  • Holding in Lieu of Procedure Turn …8-20
  • Teardrop Procedure …8-21
  • The Profile View …8-21
  • Landing Minimums …8-23
  • Airport Sketch /Airport Diagram …8-27
  • Inoperative Components…8-27
  • RNAV Instrument Approach Charts …8-32
  • Chapter 9
  • The Air Traffic Control System …9-1
  • Introduction …9-1
  • Communication Equipment …9-2
  • Navigation/Communication (NAV/COM)
  • Equipment …9-2
  • Radar and Transponders …9-3
  • Mode C (Altitude Reporting) …9-3
  • Communication Procedures …9-4
  • Communication Facilities …9-4
  • Page 17
  • xv
  • Automated Flight Service Stations (AFSS) …9-4
  • ATC Towers …9-5
  • Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) …9-6
  • Tower En Route Control (TEC) …9-7
  • Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) …9-7
  • Center Approach/Departure Control …9-7
  • ATC Inflight Weather Avoidance Assistance …9-11
  • ATC Radar Weather Displays …9-11
  • Weather Avoidance Assistance …9-11
  • Approach Control Facility …9-12
  • Approach Control Advances …9-12
  • Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) …9-12
  • Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) Radar …9-12
  • PRM Benefits …9-13
  • Control Sequence …9-13
  • Letters of Agreement (LOA) …9-14
  • Chapter 10
  • IFR Flight …10-1
  • Introduction …10-1
  • Sources of Flight Planning Information …10-2
  • Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM)…10-2
  • Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD) …10-2
  • Notices to Airmen Publication (NTAP) …10-2
  • POH/AFM …10-2
  • IFR Flight Plan …10-2
  • Filing in Flight …10-2
  • Cancelling IFR Flight Plans …10-3
  • Clearances …10-3
  • Examples …10-3
  • Clearance Separations …10-4
  • Departure Procedures (DPs) …10-5
  • Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODP)…10-5
  • Standard Instrument Departures …10-5
  • Radar Controlled Departures …10-5
  • Departures From Airports Without an
  • Operating Control Tower …10-7
  • En Route Procedures …10-7
  • ATC Reports …10-7
  • Position Reports …10-7
  • Additional Reports …10-7
  • Planning the Descent and Approach …10-8
  • Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) …10-9
  • Substitutes for Inoperative or Unusable
  • Components …10-9
  • Holding Procedures …10-9
  • Standard Holding Pattern (No Wind) …10-9
  • Standard Holding Pattern (With Wind) …10-9
  • Holding Instructions …10-9
  • Standard Entry Procedures …10-11
  • Time Factors …10-12
  • DME Holding …10-12
  • Approaches …10-12
  • Compliance With Published Standard Instrument
  • Approach Procedures …10-12
  • Instrument Approaches to Civil Airports …10-13
  • Approach to Airport Without an Operating
  • Control Tower …10-14
  • Approach to Airport With an Operating
  • Tower, With No Approach Control …10-14
  • Approach to an Airport With an Operating
  • Tower, With an Approach Control …10-14
  • Radar Approaches …10-17
  • Radar Monitoring of Instrument Approaches …10-18
  • Timed Approaches From a Holding Fix…10-18
  • Approaches to Parallel Runways …10-20
  • Side-Step Maneuver …10-20
  • Circling Approaches …10-20
  • IAP Minimums …10-21
  • Missed Approaches …10-21
  • Landing …10-22
  • Instrument Weather Flying …10-22
  • Flying Experience…10-22
  • Recency of Experience …10-22
  • Airborne Equipment and Ground Facilities …10-22
  • Weather Conditions …10-22
  • Turbulence …10-23
  • Structural Icing …10-24
  • Fog …10-24
  • Volcanic Ash …10-24
  • Thunderstorms …10-25
  • Wind Shear …10-25
  • VFR-On-Top …10-26
  • VFR Over-The-Top …10-27
  • Conducting an IFR Flight …10-27
  • Preflight …10-27
  • Departure …10-31
  • En Route …10-32
  • Arrival …10-33
  • Chapter 11
  • Emergency Operations …11-1
  • Introduction …11-1
  • Unforecast Adverse Weather …11-2
  • Inadvertent Thunderstorm Encounter …11-2
  • Inadvertent Icing Encounter …11-2
  • Precipitation Static …11-3
  • Aircraft System Malfunctions …11-3
  • Electronic Flight Display Malfunction …11-4
  • Alternator/Generator Failure …11-4
  • Techniques for Electrical Usage…11-5
  • Master Battery Switch …11-5
  • Operating on the Main Battery …11-5
  • Loss of Alternator/Generator for Electronic Flight
  • Instrumentation …11-5
Download Instrument Flying Handbook pdf from www.faa.gov, 18 pages, -KB.
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