Power Quality Issues and Feasibility Study in a DC Residential Renewable Energy System

Table 11. Comparison between AC and DC wiring, Power System Architectures, Distributed Energy Resources (DER), Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM)

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Figures

  1. PV system. … 9
  2. I-V curve for a PV panel showing the optimal operating point … 10
  3. Power curve showing the slope on the maximum point. … 12
  4. WECS system components. … 14
  5. LCD TV schematic diagram. … 19
  6. Conventional laptop power management architecture [24] … 21
  7. Microwave AC Schematic. … 22
  8. Principle of Operation of SPWM. … 26
  9. DC Residence Configuration to be considered [33] … 28
  10. FCC and CISPR conducted emissions limits. … 31
  11. EMI in a DC/DC converter … 32
  12. LISN model. … 34
  13. Boost Converter Topology. … 35
  14. Synchronous Buck Converter topology. … 36
  15. Flyback converter average model. … 36
  16. Flyback converter model in Simulink. … 37
  17. Full Bridge DC/DC Converter Topology … 38
  18. Full Bridge Inverter average model in Simulink. … 39
  19. VSI Split Phase Inverter, connected to the Grid by a LCL filter. … 40
  20. PV dynamic model [7].Used with permission from the author. … 42
  21. DC/DC Boost converter topology. … 42
  22. Dynamic PV system in Simulink. … 44
  23. Block diagram for implementing the IC method. … 45
  24. IC algorithm built in Simulink. … 46
  25. WECS model in MATLAB / Simulink. … 49
  26. Boundary between operating modes [14]. … 54
  27. SPWM operation … 58
  28. Brushless DC motor model in Simulink. … 60
  29. Torque and speed requirements for a Cloth Washer. … 62
  30. Colth Washer appliance schematic. … 63
  31. FB DC Converter Model in Simulink for the Washer. … 64
  32. Cloth Washer Appliance model developed in Simulink. … 64
  33. LCD TV schematic diagram supplied with DC power. … 67
  34. LCD TV Simulink Model. … 68
  35. Full Bridge Inverter/Transformer configuration for the CCFL. … 68
  36. Proposed Laptop power management schematic. … 69
  37. Laptop Computer Simulink Model. … 69
  38. Microwave schematic supplied by DC power. … 71
  39. Microwave simulation model. … 71
  40. Inverter control loop. … 75
  41. Unipolar PWM for Inverter switching. … 75
  42. DC Bus currents … 84
  43. Battery Voltage … 85
  44. Refrigerator Motor Response. … 85
  45. Power Quality Measurements for Refrigerator. … 87
  46. Refrigerator Power Factor. … 87
  47. PV System EMI Measurements… 88
  48. Refrigerator EMI Measurement. … 89
  49. Reference Powers (Sliding Surfaces) … 90
  50. DC Bus Currents… 92
  51. DC Bus Voltage … 93
  52. Refrigerator Motor Response. … 94
  53. Refrigerator Motor Phase Voltages. … 94
  54. Power Quality Measurements for the Refrigerator Motor. … 95
  55. Refrigerator Motor Power Factor, Case II. … 96
  56. Power Quality Measurements at the Ceiling Fans. … 96
  57. Ceiling Fan Power Factor. … 97
  58. Air Conditioning Unit Motor Response. … 97
  59. Air Conditioning Unit Motor Phase Voltages. … 98
  60. Power Quality Measurements for the AC unit Motor. … 98
  61. PV System EMI Measurement. … 99
  62. Refrigerator EMI Measurement. … 99
  63. DC Bus Currents for Case II, Steady State. … 101
  64. Battery Voltage for Case II, Steady State. … 102
  65. Reference Powers and Sliding Surfaces. … 102
  66. DC Bus Currents, Case III. … 104
  67. DC Bus Battery Voltage, Case III. … 105
  68. Refrigerator Motor Response, Case III. … 106
  69. Refrigerator Power Quality Measurements, Case III. … 106
  70. Refrigerator Power Factor, Case III. … 107
  71. Cloth Washer Motor Response, Case III. … 107
  72. Cloth Washer Motor Phase Voltages. … 108
  73. Washer Power Quality Measurements. … 109
  74. Cloth Washer Power Factor… 109
  75. EMI measurement for the PV system. … 110
  76. Refrigerator EMI measurements. … 110
  77. LCD TV EMI measurement. … 111
  78. Current and Voltage Measurements at The PCC. … 113
  79. Grid and Inverter Voltages Synchronized. … 114
  80. THD and Harmonic Analysis for the Grid Current waveform. … 115
  81. THD and Harmonic Analysis of the Grid Voltage at the PCC. … 115
  82. MPPT for PV System, Case I. … 153
  83. Refrigerator Motor Phase Voltages, Case I. … 153
  84. Harmonic Analysis for Refrigerator Motor Current, Case I. … 154
  85. Harmonic Analysis for Refrigerator Motor Voltage, Case I. … 154
  86. DC Bus Currents at Steady State. … 155
  87. DC Bus Voltage at Steady State. … 155
  88. Ceiling Fan Motor Response, Case II… 156
  89. Ceiling Fan Motor Phase Voltages, Case II. … 156
  90. AC Unit EMI Measurement, Case II. … 157
  91. Ceiling Fan EMI Measurement, Case II. … 157
  92. Resistive Loads EMI Measurement, Case II. … 158
  93. Harmonic Analysis for Refrigerator Motor Current, Case II. … 158
  94. Harmonic Analysis for Refrigerator Motor Voltage, Case II. … 159
  95. Harmonic Analysis for Ceiling Fan Motor Current, Case II. … 159
  96. Harmonic Analysis for Ceiling Fan Motor Voltage, Case II. … 160
  97. Harmonic Analysis for AC Unit Motor Current, Case II. … 160
  98. Harmonic Analysis for AC Unit Motor Voltage, Case II. … 161
  99. MPPT For Case III. … 162
  100. Refrigerator Motor Phase Voltages, Case III. … 162
  101. Laptop Computer EMI measurement. … 163
  102. Microwave EMI measurement. … 163
  103. Resistive Load EMI measurement. … 164
  104. Refrigerator Current Harmonic Analysis. … 165
  105. Refrigerator Voltage Harmonic Analysis. … 165
  106. DC Bus Currents, for Case III in Steady State. … 166
  107. Power References and Power Coefficient for the WECS, Case III. … 166
  108. Battery Voltage for Case III, Steady State. … 167
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