Preliminary Design Of A Treatment System To Remediate Acid Rock Drainage Into Jonathan Run

A first study consists of two vertical flow ponds, each designed to treat. 100 gpm of flow. At this flow of each basin will ….

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Preliminary Design Of A Treatment System To Remediate Acid Rock
TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • PREFACE… XII
  • 1.0 INTRODUCTION… 1
  • 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW… 3
  • 2.1 ACID ROCK DRAINAGE CHEMISTRY… 3
  • 2.1.1 Iron Oxidation… 4
  • 2.1.2 Aluminum Solubility and Precipitation… 4
  • 2.2 ACID ROCK DRAINAGE TREATMENT TECHNIQUES… 5
  • 2.2.1 Active Treatment … 5
  • 2.2.2 Passive Treatment… 7
  • 2.2.3 Mitigation… 8
  • 2.2.4 Elimination … 9
  • 2.2.4.1 Natural Soils … 10
  • 2.2.4.2 Compacted Clay Liners… 11
  • 2.2.4.3 Geomembranes … 11
  • 2.2.4.4 Geosynthetic Clay Liners … 13
  • 2.2.4.5 Asphalt, Concrete and Shotcrete… 14
  • 2.2.4.6 Horizontal Wells … 14
  • 3.0 SITE INVESTIGATION … 16
  • 3.1 SITE DESCRIPTION … 16
  • 3.2SITE INVESTIGATION… 19
  • 3.2.1 Geophysical Surveys … 20
  • 3.2.2 Exploratory Drilling … 21
  • 3.2.3 Groundwater … 23
  • 3.2.4 Acid-Base Accounting… 23
  • 3.2.5 Infiltration … 25
  • 3.2.6 Discharged Water From the Fill… 27
  • 3.2.6.1 Natural Spring at Discharge SLB3 …. 27
  • 3.2.6.2 Discharge SLB5… 31
  • 3.3 PRELIMINARY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS … 35
  • 3.3.1 Elimination …. 36
  • 3.3.2 Elimination + Treatment… 38
  • 3.3.3 Active Treatment … 39
  • 3.4 FINAL DESIGN DECISION… 39
  • 3.4.1 Active Treatment … 40
  • 3.4.2 Passive Treatment… 40
  • 3.4.3 Wetlands … 40
  • 4.0 BASIS OF DESIGN FOR TREATMENT SYSTEMS … 41
  • 4.1 ACTIVE TREATMENT SYSTEM USING SODIUM HYDROXIDE…. 41
  • 4.1.1 Mixing/Addition of Sodium Hydroxide … 42
  • 4.1.1.1 Quantity of Sodium Hydroxide … 42
  • 4.1.1.2 Mixing Sodium Hydroxide… 44
  • 4.1.2 Settling Pond 1… 49
  • 4.1.2.1 Horizontal Flow Velocity … 52
  • 4.1.2.2 Settling Pond 1 Using Average Flow… 53
  • 4.1.2.3 Settling Pond 1 Using 90th Percentile Flow (60 gpm) … 53
  • 4.1.3 Settling Pond 2… 54
  • 4.2 PASSIVE TREATMENT SYSTEM – VERTICAL FLOW WETLANDS… 56
  • 4.2.1 Limestone Layer… 58
  • 4.2.2 Organic Substrate Layer… 61
  • 4.2.3 Ponded Water Layer… 62
  • 4.2.4 Draining and Flushing System… 62
  • 4.2.5 Settling Pond… 64
  • 5.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS … 67
  • 6.0 FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS … 70
  • APPENDIX A … 72
  • APPENDIX B … 74
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY … 85

 

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