A Manual for Monitoring the Mass Balance of Mountain Glaciers

well designed and maintained glacier mass balance network has multiple …. is the equilibrium unemployment rate in mass units of water equivalent per unit time at any ….

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A Manual for Monitoring the Mass Balance of Mountain Glaciers
TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • I. INTRODUCTION…7
  • II. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS…9
  • 1. Glacier mass balance…9
  • 1.1. Point Thickness changes…9
  • 1.2. Accumulation and ablation…10
  • 1.3. The net mass balance at a specific point on the glacier surface…10
  • 1.4. The total net mass balance of a glacier (B)…11
  • 1.5. The mean specific mass balance ( b )…11
  • 1.6. The vertical mass balance profile (VBP)…12
  • 1.7. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA)…12
  • 1.8. The accumulation area ratio (AAR)…13
  • 1.9. Mass balance year and mass balance seasons…13
  • 2. Why study the mass balance of a glacier?…15
  • 2.1. Hazard management…16
  • 2.2. The management of regional water supplies…17
  • 2.3. The contribution to sea level rise…18
  • 2.4. Climate studies…18
  • 2.5. A question of scale…19
  • 2.6. Summary remarks…20
  • 3. How can the mass balance of a glacier be measured?…21
  • 3.1. The geodetic method…21
  • 3.2. The glaciological method…21
  • 3.3. Indirect methods derived from the glaciological method…22
  • 3.4. The flux method…24
  • 3.5. The hydrological method…25
  • 3.6. The flux – divergence method…25
  • 3.7. Modeling from climate records…25
  • 3.8. Concluding remarks…26
  • 4. The “ideal” glacier for mass balance investigation – benchmark glacier…27
  • 5. The design of a glacier mass balance network (GMN)…29
  • III. CARRYING OUT MASS BALANCE MEASUREMENTS…34
  • 6. Ablation measurements…34
  • 6.1. Ablation stakes…34
  • 6.2. Selecting sites…36
  • 6.3. Drilling ablation stakes…38
  • 6.4. The reading of ablation stakes…39
  • 6.5. Mapping the ablation area…40
  • 6.6. The steam drill (by Erich Heucke)…40
  • 7. Accumulation measurements…42
  • 7.1. Selecting the sites…42
  • 7.2. The identification of previous year layers…42
  • 7.3. Internal accumulation…43
  • 7.4. Snow density…43
  • 8. The locating of the measuring points…48
  • 9. Analysing the field data…48
  • 9.1. Maps…48
  • 9.2. Contour method…49
  • 9.3. Digital methods…50
  • 10. Data presentation…52
  • 10.1 Reporting results…52
  • 10.2 Data repositories…53
  • IV. A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF POSSIBLE ADDITIONAL MEASUREMENTS…55
  • 11. Geodetic measurements…55
  • 11.1. Changes in surface area…55
  • 11.2. Terminus variations…55
  • 11.3. The ice velocity…55
  • 11.4 Land-based photography…56
  • 12. Geophysical measurements…56
  • 13. Climate and hydrological records…57
  • Selected references on glacier mass balance studies…60
  • V. HOW TO BEHAVE ON A GLACIER (Österreichischer Alpenverein)…64
  • 14. Skill…64
  • 15. Equipment…65
  • 16. Movement techniques…68
  • 16.1. Use of ice axe…68
  • 16.2. Self-rescue techniques…68
  • 16.3. Techniques without crampons…71
  • 16.4. Techniques with crampons…74
  • 16.5. Cramponwork exercise…78
  • 17. Rope techniques…80
  • 17.1. The knots…80
  • 17.2. Methods of tying onto a rope…84
  • 17.3. Independent rope party on a glacier…86
  • 18. Belay techniques…90
  • 19. Rescue techniques…94
  • VI FUNDAMENTALS OF HIGH ALTITUDE MEDICINE (M. Knaus)…103
  • 20. The human being at high altitudes…103
  • 21. Altitude Levels…103
  • 22. The acute altitude sicknesses…104
  • 23. Altitude acclimation…104
  • 24. Additional health recommendations…106
  • WGMS – form sheets for data submission
  • Appendices I – VI
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