Professional Helicopter Pilot Guide

The commercial helicopter pilot guide is organized in a specific layout object. … It is clearly recognized that the driver a

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Professional Helicopter Pilot Guide
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1—ATTITUDE—AN OUTLINE FOR SAFETY… 1
INTRODUCTION … 3
HAZARDOUS ATTITUDES VS CURATIVE ANTIDOTES … 4
HUMAN FACTORS… 5
CHARACTERISTICS OF A “LEADER” AS RELATED TO SAFETY … 6
Motivation … 6
Reinforcement … 6
Example … 6
Communication … 6
CHAPTER 2—CONTRACT INTERPRETATION
AND ADMINISTRATION… 7
INTRODUCTION … 9
TYPES OF CONTRACTS… 9
Exclusive Use … 9
Call-When-Needed … 9
Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) … 10
On-Call … 10
DAILY AVAILABILITY VS. HOURLY GUARANTEE… 10
Daily Availability … 10
Hourly Guarantee… 10
EXCLUSIVE USE CONTRACT(EXAMPLE)… 11
Format … 11
Bid Items … 11
Flight and Duty Limitations… 11
Equipment and Avionics Requirements … 11
Maintenance … 11
Fuel and Servicing … 11
Designated Base … 11
Exclusive Use Period … 11
Availability … 11
One Hour Call-Back or Return-to Standby Status … 12
Unavailability … 12
Measurement and Payment … 12
Security of the Aircraft … 12
Accidents/Incidents/Hazards … 12
Suspension of Personnel … 12
Relief Personnel… 12
HELPFUL HINTS… 13
FUEL TENDER AND DRIVER PROCEDURES AND SAFETY … 14
Introduction … 14
Fuel Tender Requirements … 14
Inspections … 14
Requirements … 14
Other Requirements … 14
Driver Requirements … 14
Duty Limitations … 14
Readiness … 14
Communications … 15
Logistics … 15
Fueling Procedures … 15
Record Keeping … 15
CHAPTER 3 —FLIGHT FOLLOWING … 17
INTRODUCTION … 19
PROCEDURES … 19
NO CONTACT MADE … 20
PRIORITIES… 20
OTHER HELPFUL HINTS … 20
CHAPTER 4—COMMUNICATIONS … 21
INTRODUCTION … 23
PILOT RESPONSIBILITIES … 23
HELICOPTER MANAGER RESPONSIBILITIES… 23
FREQUENCIES… 23
Air Guard … 23
Tactical … 23
Air-to-Ground … 23
INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM (ICS) TERMINOLOGY … 24
Air Tactical Group Supervisor … 24
Air Operations Director … 24
Air Support Group Supervisor … 24
Deck Manager … 24
Division … 24
Helibase … 24
Helispot … 24
Helicopter Coordinator… 24
Radio Operator … 24
Take-off and Landing Coordinator … 25
CHAPTER 5 —FIRE ORGANIZATION… 27
LOCAL LEVEL ORGANIZATION … 29
Fire Management Officer (FMO) … 29
Fire Control Officer (FCO) … 29
Dispatcher … 29
Guard Stations/Work Centers … 29
Helpful Hints … 29
FIRE LINE PERSONNEL… 30
LARGE INCIDENT ORGANIZATIONS… 31
HELITACK CREWS … 32
History … 32
Positions … 32
Crewperson … 32
Lead Crewperson … 32
Assistant Foreman … 32
Foreman (Manager) … 32
Call When Needed Crews… 33
More Helpful Information … 33
CHAPTER 6—AIR OPERATIONS… 35
INTRODUCTION … 37
Safety Inspections … 37
GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS … 37
SUMMARY… 37
CHAPTER 7—HELICOPTER LANDING AREAS… 39
INTRODUCTION … 41
TERMINOLOGY … 41
Helispot … 41
Helibase … 41
Temporary Helibase… 41
Permanent Helibase … 41
INITIAL ATTACK LANDING AREAS … 41
Criteria and Considerations … 41
LANDING AREAS USED AFTER INITIAL LANDING … 42
Location in Relation to the Fire … 42
Location in Relation to Incident Base/Fire Camp… 42
SUMMARY… 42
CHAPTER 8—TACTICAL USE OF HELICOPTERS… 43
INTRODUCTION … 45
INITIAL ATTACK… 45
History … 45
Purpose … 45
Pilots Responsibilities … 45
Readiness… 45
Load calculations … 45
Fuel … 45
Pre-flight … 45
The Helitack Crew… 46
Fire Size-up … 46
Checklist … 46
Legal description… 46
Fuels … 46
Direction of spread … 46
Rate of spread … 46
Terrain … 46
Slope … 46
Aspect… 46
Resources threatened … 46
Firefighting resources required … 46
Water sources … 46
Fuel tender relocation … 46
AERIAL LOOKOUT… 47
RETARDANT/WATER DROPPING … 47
Retardant … 47
Methods of Attack for Ground Forces … 48
Direct … 48
Indirect attack … 48
Topography attack … 48
SUCCESSFUL RETARDANT/WATER DROPS… 49
SUMMARY… 49
CHAPTER 9—LOGISTICAL USE OF HELICOPTERS… 51
INTRODUCTION … 53
TRANSPORTATION OF PERSONNEL … 53
Crews … 53
Reconnaissance Flights … 53
TRANSPORTATION OF FREIGHT … 54
Internal Freight … 54
External Freight… 54
SUMMARY… 54
CHAPTER 10—BASIC FIRE SUPPRESSION… 55
INTRODUCTION … 57
SIZE-UP AND FIRST ATTACK … 57
Factors to Consider … 57
Topography … 57
Fuels … 57
Weather … 57
Safety … 57
Resources … 57
Decide Where Fire Will Spread. … 57
Universal Rules … 57
Good practices … 57
ATTACK METHODS… 58
Direct attack … 58
Indirect attack… 58
Guidelines … 58
CONTROL … 58
Preventing Spread… 58
Mop-Up … 58
Patrol And Inspection … 59
Line Patrol and Inspection… 59
Lookout Patrol and Inspection… 59
SUMMARY… 59
CHAPTER 11—FIRE BEHAVIOR AND FIRE WEATHER … 61
INTRODUCTION … 63
COMBUSTION… 63
Fire Triangle… 63
Ignition Temperatures … 63
Ignition Sources … 63
How Fires Spread … 63
FUELS … 63
Types … 63
Quantity … 63
Characteristics … 63
TOPOGRAPHIC FACTORS … 64
Aspect … 64
Elevation … 64
Position of fire on slope. … 64
Steepness of slope … 64
Shape of country. … 64
ELEMENTS OF WEATHER … 64
Temperature … 64
Humidity … 64
Wind … 64
WARNING SIGNS … 64
Fuels… 64
Fuel Dryness… 64
Topography … 64
Early Spotting … 64
Convection Column … 64
Color changes … 64
Motion … 64
FIRE SITUATIONS THAT SHOUT “WATCH OUT”… 65
Downhill fireline … 65
Hillside Firefighting … 65
Away from Burned Areas … 65
In Heavy Cover … 65
Spot Fires… 65
Cannot See Main Fire … 65
SUMMARY… 65
CHAPTER 12—SMOKEJUMPER AIRCRAFT… 67
INTRODUCTION … 69
AIRCRAFT TYPES… 69
EQUIPMENT AND PARACARGO … 69
Jump Equipment … 69
Parachute System … 69
Paracargo … 69
SMOKEJUMPER MISSIONS … 70
JUMP SPOTS … 70
AIR SPACE REQUIREMENTS… 70
TIME FRAMES… 70
SHARED INCIDENT AIR SPACE AND LANDING SITES … 70
CHAPTER 13—AIRSPACE… 71
INTRODUCTION … 73
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE … 74
Prohibited Areas … 74
Restricted Areas … 74
Military Operations Areas … 74
Alert Areas … 74
Warning Areas … 74
Controlled Firing Areas … 74
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES… 75
Pilot … 75
On Scene Personnel … 75
CHAPTER 14—GLOSSARY OF TERMS… 77
EXHIBIT 1—HELICOPTER FIRE FIGHTING AND SAFETY … 85
TABLE OF CONTENTS… 86
PREFACE … 87
INTRODUCTION … 88
FIREFIGHTING USES… 89
General Uses … 89
Special Uses … 89
Water or fire retardant dropping … 89
Aerial Ignition Systems … 89
SAFETY AND RADIO COMMUNICATIONS… 89
Flight Safety … 89
Air to Air Communications … 89
Wires … 89
Other Aircraft … 89
Smoke … 89
Landing in the Burn … 89
Escape Routes … 90
Pull-ups, etc. … 90
Pilot Fatigue … 90
Ground Safety on the Fireline — The Helicopter Pilot’s Concern … 90
Air to Ground Communication … 90
Drop Hazards to Ground Personnel … 90
Rotor Downwash Effects on the Fire… 90
Fire Situations That Shout “Watch Out!” … 91
AIR OPERATIONS ORGANIZATION—AIRBORNE … 91
Air Tactical Group Supervisor … 91
Air Tanker Coordinator (Lead Plane) … 91
Helicopter Coordinator… 92
HELIBASE (OR HELISPOT) ORGANIZATION AND SAFETY… 92
Helibase (or Helispot) Manager … 92
Takeoff and Landing Controller (TOLC.) … 92
Ground Safety at the Helibase … 92
FIREFIGHTING TACTICS… 94
The Fire Triangle … 94
Initial Attack Crew Placement … 94
Water and Retardant Dropping Tactics … 94
Water Dropping Tactics … 94
Retardant Dropping Tactics … 94
Spot Fires … 95
Selecting the Attack … 95
Fire Ground Orientation … 95
Upslope Fire … 95
Slop-overs … 95
Hot Spots … 95
Backfiring … 95
Firing-out … 96
Drop Concentration vs. Fuel Loading … 96
Means of Drop Control By the Pilot … 96
Airspeed and Direction … 96
Altitude … 96
Drop Techniques … 96
Hover Drops … 96
Cross-slope Drops … 97
Downslope Drops … 97
Upslope Drops… 97
Smoke … 97
Water Bucket Operations… 98
Bucket Systems Preflight Checks … 98
Precautions … 98
Typical Water Bucket Operation … 99
Fixed Drop Tank Operations … 99
Single door drops … 100
Salvo (double door drop) … 100
Trail Drop … 100
Tank Systems Preflight Checks … 100
Operational and Inflight Checks… 100
FIXED TANK VS. WATER BUCKET COMPARISON CHART … 101
AERIAL IGNITION SYSTEMS… 102
Helitorch … 102
“Ping-Pong Ball Machine” … 103
CONCLUSION … 103
APPENDIX I… 104
APPENDIX II… 105
EXHIBIT 2—INCIDENT AVIATION COMMUNICATIONS,
FUNCTIONS, AND FREQUENCIES… 107
TABLE OF CONTENTS… 108
Communication Functions… 109
Radio Discipline … 110
VHF-AM, VHF-FM, and UHF-FM … 110
AM Frequencies …111
FM Frequencies … 112
National Support Cache FM Frequencies … 113
Airports … 114
Flight Following… 115
Five Minutes Out … 116
Arrival In Incident Airspace … 117
Prioritizing Requests … 118
Requesting Aircraft … 119
Arriving Aircraft … 120
Air Tanker Tactics … 121
Helicopter Tactics … 122
Tactics Follow-up … 123
Air-to-Air on Complex Incidents … 124
FM Briefing Frequency … 125
Helibase TOLC and Deck … 126
Flight Following on Incidents… 127
Helispot Communications … 128
NON-RADIO COMMUNICATIONS… 129
Helibase Telephone … 129
Fixed-wing Base Telephone … 129
Computers … 129
Fax Machines … 129

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