Handbook Help Me Understand Genetics

Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells. They provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food, convert those nutrients into energy, and carry out specialized functions.

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Handbook Help Me Understand Genetics, Your Guide to Understand Genetics Conditions
Cells and DNA
Cells, genes, and chromosomes
How Genes Work
Proteins, cell growth, and cell division
Mutations and Health
Gene mutations, chromosomal changes, and conditions that run in families
Inheriting Genetic Conditions
Inheritance patterns and understanding risk
Genetic Consultation
Finding and visiting a genetic counselor or other genetics professional
Genetic Testing
Benefits, costs, risks, and limitations of genetic testing
Gene Therapy
Experimental techniques, safety, ethics, and availability
The Human Genome Project
Sequencing and understanding the human genome
Genomic Research
Next steps in studying the human genome
What is a cell?
What is DNA?
What is mitochondrial DNA?
What is a gene?
What is a chromosome?
How many chromosomes do people have?
Cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton is a network of long fibers that make up the cell’s structural framework. The cytoskeleton has several critical functions, including determining cell shape, participating in cell division, and allowing cells to move. It also provides a track-like system that directs the movement of organelles and other substances within cells.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (illustration on page 6)
This organelle helps process molecules created by the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum also transports these molecules to their specific destinations either inside or outside the cell.
Golgi apparatus (illustration on page 7)
The Golgi apparatus packages molecules processed by the endoplasmic reticulum to be transported out of the cell.
Lysosomes and peroxisomes (illustration on page 7)
These organelles are the recycling center of the cell. They digest foreign bacteria that invade the cell, rid the cell of toxic substances, and recycle worn-out cell components.
Mitochondria (illustration on page 7)
Mitochondria are complex organelles that convert energy from food into a form that the cell can use. They have their own genetic material, separate from the DNA in the nucleus, and can make copies of themselves.
Nucleus (illustration on page 8)
The nucleus serves as the cell’s command center, sending directions to the cell to grow, mature, divide, or die. It also houses DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the cell’s hereditary material. The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope, which protects the DNA and separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell.
Plasma membrane (illustration on page 8)
The plasma membrane is the outer lining of the cell. It separates the cell from its environment and allows materials to enter and leave the cell.
Ribosomes (illustration on page 8)
Ribosomes are organelles that process the cell’s genetic instructions to create proteins. These organelles can float freely in the cytoplasm or be connected to the endoplasmic reticulum (see above)

Download Handbook Help Me Understand Genetics pdf from ghr.nlm.nih.gov, 147 pages, 4484.07KB.
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