Flute Vibrato in the 18th and 19th Centuries

An analysis of indicated vibrato in pieces from flute methods… Statistics of vibrato indications in the flute sonatas by Raehs

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Flute Vibrato in the 18th and 19th Centuries, 1.1 Flattement technique, 1.2 Martellement/Schwebungen, 1.3 Shaking the flute, 1.4 Tremblement flexible, 1.5 Lip and jaw vibrato, 1.6 Slow and controlled chest vibrato, 1.7 Chest vibrato involving the vocal chords, 2.1 Indications to the 17th century, 2.2 Early 18th century, 2.3 Around the middle of the 18th century, 2.4 The late 18th century, 2.4.1 France, 2.4.2 England, 2.4.3 Germany, 2.5 Other countries in the 18th century, 2.6 The 19th century, 2.6.1 England, the Nicholson school, England, second half of the century, The Imitation of a Bell, 2.6.2 France, The Taffanel school, 2.6.3 Germany, Germany, second half of the century, 2.7 Other countries in the 19th century, 2.9 Vibrato in the orchestra, 2.10 Crescendo or diminuendo, 2.11 Messa di voce, 2.12 Fermatas, 2.13 Expressive accents, 2.14 Summary, Appendix:, 1. The Vibrato Techniques

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