LNG Safety Myths and Legends

LNG-Natural Gas Properties. Liquefied Natural Gas is a Cryogenic Liquid. LNG Density – 26.5 LB. … Historically for all types of LNG – no loss of life …

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LNG SAFETY, MYTHS and LEGENDS, Doug Quillen, ChevronTexaco Corp. Natural Gas Technology, Investment in a Healthy U.S. Energy Future, May 14 – 15, 2002, Houston, Natural gas is lighter than air, Natural Gas Density – 0.47, (Air – 1.0), Natural gas rises under normal atmospheric, conditions, Myth and Legend, \”Catastrophic release of LNG creates a, BLEVE — boiling liquid expanding vapor, explosion\”, NOT TRUE, In laboratory and open ocean combustion, tests, there have been, documented, cases of LNG BLEVEs, Myth and Legend, \”An LNG Tanker is a floating Bomb\”, Natural gas is combustible in the range, of 5% to 15% volume concentrations in, Combustible mixtures in confined space, will burn explosively, LNG does not explode or burn, Common Sense and, Knowledge, LNG is a cryogenic liquid – physical, contact or spillage constitute a personnel, and equipment hazard, LNG Natural Gas, Natural Gas presents an asphyxiation, hazard, What Happens with a Spill on, Water?, LNG pool vaporizes rapidly (faster than an, equal sized pool on land), LNG spill on or within hull can cause brittle, fracture (carbon & low alloy steel), LNG can undergo \”rapid phase transition\”, a, vapor explosion (not combustion), LNG pool formation accompanied by ignition, Natural gas cloud formation with subsequent, burn back, Assessing The Hazard, 30 Years of LNG Experience, LNG history in the US dates back to 1940\’s, LNG tanker trade initiated with exports in 1969, Eight marine incidents have resulted in, spillage of LNG – some hull damage due to, cold fracture and no cargo fires, Seven incidents not involving spillage – two, from grounding – no significant cargo loss, LNG carriers are inherently much more robust, than typical crude, fuel, and chemical tankers, LNG Tanker at Loading Berth,, Kenai, Alaska, Photo: Courtesy of Phillips Petroleum, Cross of LNG, Tanker, Assessing, Hazard, LNG vaporizes and causes condensation, of atmospheric moisture – visible cloud, As LNG vapor cloud warms it lifts, Water is a superior heat source compared, to soil/solids, Spills on water tend to vaporize rapidly, creating a potentially combustible plume, that migrates until a) the LNG source is, exhausted, and b)dilution by air reduces, the concentration below the lower, flammability limit (LFL), Assessing the Hazard, An ignition source close to the origin of, the spill is likely to cause ignition and, result in rapid burn off of natural gas, vapors, Absence of an ignition source would, result in a plume that could migrate, downwind for a considerable distance. A remote (downwind) ignition of a plume, in the flammable portion of the vapor, cloud would result in relatively slow, (subsonic) burn back to the spill pool, Assessing the Hazard, What has Changed since, Sept. 11, 2001?, Everyone is looking at their, environment differently, Potential threat to infrastructure has, increased – Responsible parties are, reacting, Assumptions about what constitutes, threats are being reassessed

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3 Responses to “LNG Safety Myths and Legends”

  1. Lawanna Balerio on April 19th, 2013 at 10:14 am

    s Court of First Instance sentenced Liu to life imprisonment and deprived of political rights for life. Liu escaped from prison several times, and a danger to society: Born in 1971 in Hunan Hengdong intellectual family, 17-year-old convicted of burglary Hunan Taojiang County Court sentenced to six years. Released from prison in October 1999 because of Theft, Jiangmen City, Guangdong Province, the court sentenced to life imprisonment. After he pretended to seriously ill apply for medical parole escaped from prison. Illegal possession of firearms in September 2007, he was arrested, the combined sentence of 18 years, Chishan Prison in Hunan Province. The 2008 jailbreak escape, and later was arrested for theft, Hunan Province, in January 2009, was sent to prison for custody Tokuyama. November 15, 2009, LIU from Tokuyama prison again escaped. Liu after the jailbreak,moncler outlet, the Tokuyama prison dispatched more than 200 prison guards, armed police, and expand dragnet searches of arrest, about 5 km radius of the two hills surrounded ultimately failed arrested Liu. Informed sources told reporters, Liu strong viability, “he specializes in open all kinds of locks, lock, motorcycle, car, overnight in the cold winter wild, even hiding in the mountains to woods and ditches channels of to escape. ” Multi-line unjust is doomed to destruction. September 1, 2010, along with the astronomical drugs stolen cracked, Liu fled modus career came to an end in Anqing, Anhui. This time, he lamented and said estimates he could not escape out. Our reporter He Jinyan correspondent Huang Feng in the classic American movie “The Shawshank Redemption”, the hero Andy through digging the tunnel, climb over the sewer successful jailbreak in the rain to greet the “new”. However, the reality is not a movie. 23 years, “professional thief” Liu repeated cycle of crime imprisonment jailbreak “life path:” Five palace third escape, climb 4.5 m high walls and 6 kV grid, staged life and death the escape show “, the end could not escape the long arm of the law. December 21, 2011, theft, escape the crime of multiple crimes, the Anqing City Intermediate People’s Court of First Instance sentenced Liu to life imprisonment and deprived of political rights for life. Liu said he had seen the movie “jailbreak” it is purely fictional, “actor and I, I do not jailbreak as a career, just breathe out only after longer escape to go!” Malingering defrauding medical parole in 1971, Liu was born in Hunan Sangzhi an ordinary family of intellectuals, both parents are teachers. High hopes parents of Liu as the youngest of the family, and hope that his other brother and sister, go to college, get a proper job. After graduating from elementary school, Liu with his parents job transfers go to secondary school in Changsha. 1987, for violation of school rules, he was the school ordered to leave, and then sent him to their father’s multi-contact Taojiang school. Soon, Liu’s father died of cancer, he had one of his Yiyang of Taojiang the uncle. “If not tired of things for me to read, perhaps the father not so early death.” And Liu still this deep remorse. Liu’s character changed dramatically after my father passed away, began contaminated theft vices. In August 1988, , Liu stole a photographer’s camera, flash and film, and was sentenced to six years in prison,doudoune moncler. Liu in Hunan Province, juvenile delinquents for the serving period, mothers used to go to visit, to encourage him to mend. He wrote letters to his mother “repentance”, said their desire to go to college, and would like to get rid of the disadvantages of early and turn over a new leaf, “my brother and sister are excellent, my behavior is a disgrace to the family”. View of Liu there are signs of repentance, in 1990, the Changsha Intermediate People’s Court ruled that Liu commutation year. The following year, the 21-year-old Liu was released from prison, assiduously, he acquired a first-hand professional unlocking skills. Gradually, he does not meet the unlocking small income, want to “make a lot of money, then south to Guangdong, to start auto theft career. 1999, Liu suspicion of stealing three vans and two jeeps,woolrich outlet, a huge amount of money involved, Jiangmen, Guangdong court sentenced to life imprisonment. Guangdong Provincial High Court ruled in 2002 commuted to 19 years in prison. The following year, Liu Hong from Chenzhou prison into the Yiyang Akayama prison. Again imprisonment, the mother did not go to prison seen Liu. Initially, the brother for his running physical exertion, later is no longer involved. Sister in poor health, more time to attend to his affairs. Liu’s own words, the family regardless of his, this caught my brother asked me, Why do not you jump from a building to die ,The bus driver was alone for help 3 people assaulted a femal, I know it is the angry words, he was very sad. Sentence is too long, Liu is determined to escape, and after I thought I could pretend to be sick to cheat on medical parole in order to take the opportunity to escape. Malingering, Liu bite the bullet on a diet for six months, thin leaving only skinny. Height of 1.76 meters, he was weighing only 40 kilograms, “prison really thought I was seriously ill. Liu to the grounds of suffering from diseases such as gastric cancer, chronic hepatitis, cholecystitis, successfully apply for medical parole. Medical parole after one year in August 2004, Liu did not return to prison, choosing instead to flee. Again disguised jailbreak September 1, 2006, Liu suspected of illegal possession of firearms,, Yuhua District patrol officials arrested, released on bail when after absconding. The following year,, he again was arrested for illegal possession of firearms, plus before the execution is not complete the sentence, the Yuhua District Court sentenced him to 18 years in prison, continued Chishan prison sentence. At the time, prosecutors issued an identification of the conclusions of the Second Xiangya hospital, confirmed Liu gastric cancer does not exist. Pretend to be sick again escaped arrest, Liu Afterward, always seek escape opportunity. The morning of February 1, 2008, coincided with a large number of prisoners relatives to Chishan prison to visit him, and family members and prisoners to eat in a restaurant, in addition to a number of new prison guards and prisoners meet people was chaos. The premeditated Liu Aiming timing in ward, hospital wards for a good casual, mixed with affection the same dining room. Large lock open the iron door of the stairwell with a homemade tool, and mixed with no ranks of uniformed guards, and walked out of the prison. Liu take a three-wheeled motorcycle fled Yuanjiang, later transferred to Changsha. The next day, the financial support of the former cellmate, LIU buy a fake ID and to impersonator others driving certificate, traveled to Jiangsu. Liu Hong stolen a picklock worked in more than a dozen provinces of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hubei, Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan and other crazy theft perpetrator. Period, he used the stolen money to buy 600 million yuan worth of cars, simply drive theft. On the afternoon of June 17, 2008, when Liu was driving in Lixian County, Hunan People’s Hospital near ready to commit crimes, patrolling police arrested him. Examined by the local court, and sentenced him to 20 years in prison, the transfer of the Chishan prison. The following year, transferred to Hunan Tokuyama prison. Successful jailbreak 2 Liu seems “addicted”, , and deliberately seeking to escape opportunity. Serving his sentence, Liu often hear the sound of the train “Bang” passing. Judging Tokuyama prison close from the railway, he used this escape route design. 7:00 am on November 15,woolrich, 2009, Liu Hong labor in the production workshop building work, are not prepared to take the guards on the knitting machine production tools “Shake” and packaged with fiber rope stuffed into the prepared in advance Pidai. He then slipped out of the prison area door, took off his prison uniform, in a prison south of wandering around, trying to find export. At this time, he found a shop next to the bushes and put a staircase. He the stairs resting against the wall, with “Shake” knocked off the top of the wall a few turned drilled clouds 6 kV high-voltage grid fence to escape from the gap. It is reported that, Tokuyama prison dense grid, electric shock will be killed. Later, Liu recalled, then escaped, his hands are blood. Tokuyama prison inmate serving a sentence at the same text said Liu escape a few days ago in wool storage place to sleep, a good opportunity to take the bags, “a day on the toilet many times.” The same period inmates before escaping half, Liu Zaoshuizaoqi, every day, first to the workshop labor. “Yemou. Also confirmed in a better relationship between the prison and Liu cellmate Xiaomou Liu jailbreak “well-prepared” him for purposely did you get lines, strips of cloth, plastic pipes and other items, with a blade scratched jumpsuits on yellow cloth, want to get rid of the prison uniform logo, people recognize that he is a prisoner. ” Liu after the jailbreak, the Tokuyama prison dispatched more than 200 prison guards, armed police,The earliest sperm bank emergency volunteers launched sperm, and expand dragnet searches of arrest, about 5 km radius of the two hills surrounded ultimately failed arrested Liu. For afterwards, Hunan Bureau of Prisons serious processing involved dereliction of duty personnel. Rectification of all aspects of the Tokuyama prison fences, power grid, as well as internal control facilities. Informed sources told reporters that Liu strong viability, adept at camouflage, “He is good at all kinds of door locks, door locks, motorcycle, car, overnight in the cold winter wild, even hiding in the mountains to the woods and water ditch channels to evade arrest. Drugs stolen pull-out “jailbreak Thief fled after the third escape, Liu did not come back to Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and other places, but fled to regain” stealing live. To hide their identity, LIU each to a local effort to learn the local dialect, very little contact with outsiders, put an end to all ties and Hunan. Every time he go out to take the bus or a long-distance bus, live in low-level hostels, and frequent replacement of the phone number. In August 2010, Liu and his associates Liu Qiang After a few days, check out the location, targeted pharmaceutical company in Shanghai, Anqing Branch. In the early morning of September 1, Liu Hong and Liu Qiang car outside the walls of the company. Liu Qiang responsible for lookout, Liu escaped monitoring, over the wall into the company hospital to cut pharmaceutical warehouse windows security net tools, drilling window into the warehouse and stole more than 50 pieces of expensive medicines, worth about 47 million stolen money, after selling more than 30 million . From astronomical medicines caused by the theft of police high degree of concern, 9:00 the evening of 18 November 2010, after two months of investigation, the suspect Luo Zhonghua, Liu Qiang, NIE Jing trio Anqing police and arrested. Liu Qiang truthful account of the facts of the crime, but three days claiming Luo Zhonghua suspects refused account. Anqing City detention center during the trial, in order to avoid exposure to identity, Luo Zhonghua refused to eat or drink, not even on the toilet, urine will pull the pants, would like to take this change clothes while waiting for an opportunity to escape. Luo Zhonghua’s move has aroused the suspicions of the police extracted his fingerprint matching unexpected discovery: He is wanted by the Ministry of Public Security Class B fugitive Liu. The police in the the Liu residence found a large number of fitness equipment, well built, really do not see people with the disease. It is understood, Liu has to divorce his wife have a daughter,Industry and Commerce of the caterer had to stop because of, “children 5 years old this year, , it should be a very lovely daughter, I had not fulfilled a father’s responsibility, not want her to grow up to know I do these things,UGG .” When Reporters repeatedly asked Liu why jailbreak, he deftly said: “there is too stuffy, breathe out.” he said, this time caught, no jailbreak. The reporter asked, if given the opportunity will be the fourth jailbreak it He hung his head in silence. December 21, 2011, Liu sat in Anqing City Intermediate People’s Court of the dock, deep bow my head. When the prosecutor asked Liu perpetrator details, but he faltered well aware of the trial, he intends to theft accomplices Liu Qiang, who won his sinful steal drugs, sell drugs are a dry, Liu Qiang unknowingly. ” without a word. In fact, Liu Qiang has confessed to taking part in thefts. Anqing City Intermediate People’s Court of First Instance theft, escape the crime of multiple crimes, sentenced Liu to life imprisonment and deprived of political rights for life. Liu appealed his conviction, the court said they will appeal.

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