Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration 10g Release 1

Oracle® Data Guard. Concepts and Administration. 10g Release 1 (10.1). Part No. B10823-01. December 2003. This guide describes Oracle Data Guard concepts …

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Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration 10g Release 1
Send Us Your Comments … xvii
Preface… xix
Audience … xix
Documentation Accessibility … xx
Organization… xx
Related Documentation … xxiii
Conventions… xxiv
What’s New in Oracle Data Guard? … xxvii
Concepts and Administration
Introduction to Oracle Data Guard
Data Guard Configurations …
Primary Database …
Standby Databases …
Configuration Example …
Data Guard Services…
Log Transport Services…
Log Apply Services …
Role Management Services …
Data Guard Broker …
Using Oracle Enterprise Manager…
Using the Data Guard Command-Line Interface …
Data Guard Protection Modes …
Data Guard and Complementary Technologies …
Summary of Data Guard Benefits …
Getting Started with Data Guard
Standby Database Types…
Physical Standby Databases…
Logical Standby Databases …
User Interfaces for Administering Data Guard Configurations …
Data Guard Operational Prerequisites …
Hardware and Operating System Requirements …
Oracle Software Requirements…
Standby Database Directory Structure Considerations …
Online Redo Logs, Archived Redo Logs, and Standby Redo Logs…
Online Redo Logs and Archived Redo Logs …
Standby Redo Logs …
Creating a Physical Standby Database
Preparing the Primary Database for Standby Database Creation …
Enable Forced Logging…
Create a Password File…
Setting Primary Database Initialization Parameters …
Enable Archiving…
Creating a Physical Standby Database …
Create a Backup Copy of the Primary Database Datafiles …
Create a Control File for the Standby Database…
Prepare an Initialization Parameter File for the Standby Database …
Copy Files from the Primary System to the Standby System …
Set Up the Environment to Support the Standby Database…
Start the Physical Standby Database …
Verify the Physical Standby Database Is Performing Properly…
Further Preparations …
Creating a Logical Standby Database
Log Transport Services
Preparing for Logical Standby Database Creation …
Determine Support for Datatypes and Storage Attributes for Tables…
Ensure Table Rows in the Primary Database Can Be Uniquely Identified …
Creating a Logical Standby Database…
Create a Physical Standby Database…
Prepare the Primary Database to Support a Logical Standby Database …
Prepare to Transition to a Logical Standby Database…
Start the Logical Standby Database …
Verify the Logical Standby Database Is Performing Properly …
Further Preparations …
Introduction to Log Transport Services …
Where to Send Redo Data …
Destination Types …
Configuring Destinations with the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n Parameter …
Setting Up Flash Recovery Areas As Destinations…
How to Send Redo Data …
Using Archiver Processes (ARCn) to Archive Redo Data…
Using the Log Writer Process (LGWR) to Archive Redo Data…
Providing for Secure Redo Data Transmission…
When Redo Data Should Be Sent …
Specifying Role-Based Destinations with the VALID_FOR Attribute …
Specify Unique Names for Primary and Standby Databases …
What to Do If Errors Occur …
Setting Up a Data Protection Mode …
Choosing a Data Protection Mode…
Configuring Standby Redo Log Files …
Setting the Data Protection Mode of a Data Guard Configuration …
Managing Log Files…
Specifying Alternate Directory Locations for Archived Redo Log Files…
Reusing Online Redo Log Files …
Managing Standby Redo Log Files…
Planning for Growth and Reuse of the Control Files…
Sharing a Log File Destination Among Multiple Standby Databases …
Managing Archive Gaps…
When Is an Archive Gap Discovered?…
How Is a Gap Resolved? …
Using the Fetch Archive Log (FAL) Process to Resolve Archive Gaps …
Manually Determining and Resolving Archive Gaps…
Verification …
Monitoring Log File Archival Information…
Monitoring the Performance of Log Transport Services …
Log Apply Services
Introduction to Log Apply Services…
Log Apply Services Configuration Options …
Using Real-Time Apply to Apply Redo Data Immediately …
Specifying a Time Delay for the Application of Archived Redo Log Files…
Applying Redo Data to Physical Standby Databases…
Starting Redo Apply …
Starting Real-Time Apply …
Stopping Log Apply Services …
Monitoring Log Apply Services on Physical Standby Databases …
Applying Redo Data to Logical Standby Databases …
Starting SQL Apply …
Starting Real-time Apply…
Stopping Log Apply Services on a Logical Standby Database…
Monitoring Log Apply Services for Logical Standby Databases …
Tuning the Log Apply Rate for a Physical Standby Database…
Role Management
Introduction to Role Transitions …
Which Role Transition to Use …
Switchovers …
Failovers…
Role Transitions Involving Physical Standby Databases…
Switchovers Involving a Physical Standby Database …
Failovers Involving a Physical Standby Database…
Managing a Physical Standby Database
Managing a Logical Standby Database
Role Transitions Involving Logical Standby Databases … 7-19
Switchovers Involving a Logical Standby Database … 7-19
Failovers Involving a Logical Standby Database … 7-22
Starting Up and Shutting Down a Physical Standby Database…
Starting Up a Physical Standby Database…
Shutting Down a Physical Standby Database …
Using a Standby Database That Is Open for Read-Only Access …
Assessing Whether or Not to Open a Standby Database for Read-Only Access..
Opening a Physical Standby Database for Read-Only Access …
Sorting Considerations for Standby Databases Open for Read-Only Access …
Managing Primary Database Events That Affect the Standby Database …
Adding a Datafile or Creating a Tablespace …
Dropping a Tablespace in the Primary Database …
Using Transportable Tablespaces with a Physical Standby Database …
Renaming a Datafile in the Primary Database…
Adding or Dropping Online Redo Log Files…
Altering the Primary Database Control File…
NOLOGGING or Unrecoverable Operations …
Using RMAN to Back Up and Restore Files on a Physical Standby Database…
Backup Procedure …
Effect of Switchovers, Failovers, and Control File Creation on Backups…
Additional Backup Situations …
Deletion Policy for Archived Redo Log Files In Flash Recovery Areas…
Recovering Through the OPEN RESETLOGS Statement …
Monitoring the Primary and Standby Databases …
Alert Log…
Dynamic Performance Views (Fixed Views)…
Monitoring Recovery Progress…
Configuring and Managing a Logical Standby Database … 9-1
Managing SQL Apply… 9-2
Controlling User Access to Tables in a Logical Standby Database… 9-3
Deleting Archived Redo Log Files No Longer Needed By SQL Apply …
Modifying a Logical Standby Database …
How Triggers and Constraints Are Handled on a Logical Standby Database …
Skipping SQL Statements on a Logical Standby Database …
Adding or Re-creating Tables on a Logical Standby Database …
Viewing and Controlling Logical Standby Events …
Understanding and Viewing SQL Apply Activity…
Enabling Real-Time Apply…
Recovering from Errors …
Refreshing Materialized Views …
Upgrading the Oracle Database Software Version…
Recovering Through the OPEN RESETLOGS Statement …
Tuning Logical Standby Databases…
Create a Primary Key RELY Constraint…
Gather Statistics for the Cost-Based Optimizer …
Adjust the Transaction Consistency …
Adjust the Maximum Number of Parallel Execution Processes…
Control Memory Usage on the Logical Standby Database …
Data Guard Scenarios
Setting Up and Verifying Archival Destinations …
Configuring a Primary Database and a Physical Standby Database …
Configuring a Primary Database and a Logical Standby Database…
Configuring Both Physical and Logical Standby Databases…
Verifying the Current VALID_FOR Attribute Settings for Each Destination …
Choosing the Best Available Standby Database for a Role Transition …
Example: Best Physical Standby Database for a Failover…
Example: Best Logical Standby Database for a Failover Operation…
Using Flashback Database After a Failover …
Converting a Failed Primary Database into a Physical Standby Database…
Converting a Failed Primary Database into a Logical Standby Database …
Using Flashback Database After Issuing an Open Resetlogs Statement …
Flashing Back a Physical Standby Database…
Flashing Back a Logical Standby Database…
Reference
Initialization Parameters
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n Parameter Attributes
Using a Physical Standby Database with a Time Lag…
Establishing a Time Lag on a Physical Standby Database …
Failing Over to a Physical Standby Database with a Time Lag…
Switching Over to a Physical Standby Database with a Time Lag …
Recovering from a Network Failure …
Recovering After the NOLOGGING Clause Is Specified…
Recovery Steps for Logical Standby Databases …
Recovery Steps for Physical Standby Databases …
Determining If a Backup Is Required After Unrecoverable Operations…
Resolving Archive Gaps Manually…
What Causes Archive Gaps? …
Determining If an Archive Gap Exists …
Manually Transmitting Log Files in the Archive Gap to the Standby Site…
Manually Applying Log Files in the Archive Gap to the Standby Database …
Creating a Standby Database That Uses OMF or ASM …
Changing Destination Attributes … 12-2
Viewing Current Settings of Destination Initialization Parameters … 12-3
AFFIRM and NOAFFIRM … 12-4
ALTERNATE and NOALTERNATE… 12-7
ARCH and LGWR … 12-12
DB_UNIQUE_NAME and NODB_UNIQUE_NAME … 12-14
DELAY and NODELAY … 12-16
DEPENDENCY and NODEPENDENCY … 12-19
LOCATION and SERVICE… 12-23
MANDATORY and OPTIONAL … 12-26
MAX_FAILURE and NOMAX_FAILURE… 12-28
NET_TIMEOUT and NONET_TIMEOUT… 12-31
QUOTA_SIZE and NOQUOTA_SIZE… 12-34
QUOTA_USED and NOQUOTA_USED … 12-37
REGISTER and NOREGISTER … 12-39
REOPEN and NOREOPEN … 12-41
SYNC and ASYNC … 12-43
TEMPLATE and NOTEMPLATE… 12-47
VALID_FOR … 12-50
VERIFY and NOVERIFY … 12-53
Attribute Compatibility for Archive Destinations… 12-55
SQL Statements Relevant to Data Guard
Views Relevant to Oracle Data Guard
Troubleshooting Data Guard
ALTER DATABASE Statements… 13-1
ALTER SESSION Statements … 13-5
Appendixes
Common Problems… A-1
Standby Archive Destination Is Not Defined Properly … A-2
Renaming Datafiles with the ALTER DATABASE Statement… A-2
Standby Database Does Not Receive Redo Data from the Primary Database … A-3
You Cannot Mount the Physical Standby Database … A-4
Log File Destination Failures … A-4
Handling Logical Standby Database Failures … A-5
Problems Switching Over to a Standby Database … A-5
Switchover Fails Because Redo Data Was Not Transmitted… A-6
Switchover Fails Because SQL Sessions Are Still Active … A-6
Switchover Fails Because User Sessions Are Still Active … A-8
Switchover Fails with the ORA-01102 Error … A-9
Switchover Fails Because Redo Data Is Not Applied After the Switchover… A-9
Roll Back After Unsuccessful Switchover and Start Over… A-10
Data Guard and Real Application Clusters
Cascaded Redo Log Destinations
What to Do If SQL Apply Stops …
Network Tuning for Redo Data Transmission…
Managing Data Guard Network Timeout …
Slow Disk Performance on Standby Databases …
Log Files Must Match to Avoid Primary Database Shutdown…
Configuring Standby Databases in a Real Application Clusters Environment …
Setting Up a Multi-Instance Primary with a Single-Instance Standby…
Setting Up a Multi-Instance Primary with a Multi-Instance Standby…
Setting Up a Cross-Instance Archival Database Environment…
Configuration Considerations in a Real Application Clusters Environment…
Format for Archived Redo Log Filenames …
Archive Destination Quotas …
Data Protection Modes …
Role Transitions…
Troubleshooting…
Switchover Fails in a Real Application Clusters Configuration…
Avoiding Downtime in Real Application Clusters During a Network Outage …
Configuring Cascaded Redo Log Destinations…
Configuring Cascaded Redo Log Destinations for Physical Standby Databases .
Configuring Cascaded Redo Log Destinations for Logical Standby Databases …
Role Transitions with Cascaded Redo Log Destinations…
Standby Databases Receiving Redo Data from a Physical Standby Database…
Standby Databases Receiving Redo Data from a Logical Standby Database…
Examples of Cascaded Redo Log Destinations…
Local Physical Standby and Cascaded Remote Physical Standby …
Local Physical Standby and Cascaded Remote Logical Standby…
Local and Remote Physical Standby and Cascaded Local Logical Standby …
Consolidated Reporting with Cascaded Logical Standby Destinations …
Temporary Use of Cascaded Destinations During Network Upgrades …
Creating a Physical Standby Database with Recovery Manager
Setting Archive Tracing
Sample Disaster Recovery ReadMe File
Index
Preparing to Use RMAN to Create a Standby Database … D-1
About Standby Database Preparation Using RMAN… D-2
Creating the Standby Control File with RMAN … D-3
Naming the Standby Database Datafiles When Using RMAN … D-4
Naming the Standby Database Log Files When Using RMAN … D-6
Creating a Standby Database with RMAN: Overview … D-7
RMAN Standby Creation Without Recovery… D-7
RMAN Standby Creation with Recovery … D-8
Setting Up the Standby Instance … D-9
Creating a Standby Database with the Same Directory Structure … D-10
Creating the Standby Database Without Performing Recovery… D-10
Creating the Standby Database and Performing Recovery… D-11
Creating a Standby Database with a Different Directory Structure… D-12
Naming Standby Database Files with DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT… D-13
Naming Standby Database Files with SET NEWNAME… D-13
Naming Standby Database Files with CONFIGURE AUXNAME … D-16
Creating a Standby Database on the Local Host… D-18
Creating a Standby Database with Image Copies… D-19
Overview … D-19
When Copies and Datafiles Use the Same Names … D-20
When Copies and Datafiles Use Different Names … D-21
Usage Scenario … D-24
LOG_ARCHIVE_TRACE Initialization Parameter …
Determining the Location of the Trace Files…
Setting the LOG_ARCHIVE_TRACE Initialization Parameter …
Choosing an Integer Value…

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