Genes that Prevent and Cause Cancer: Tumor Suppressor Genes and Oncogenes

cancer. Oncogenic mutations in ras genes prevent the protein from hydrolyzing GTP to GDP. As a result, the protein remains always in its active GTP-bound …

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Genes that Prevent and Cause Cancer, Tumor Suppressor Genes and Oncogenes, (Lecture), OBJECTIVES, KEY WORDS, I. INTRODUCTION, tumor suppressor, genes, oncogenes, II. TUmOR SUPPRESSOR GENES, loss-of-function, A. Retinoblastoma, Retinoblastoma, 1. Two-hit hypothesis, retinoblastoma gene (Rb, 2. Loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH), loss-of-heterozygosity, B. Genes encoding Cdk inhibitors are tumor suppressor genes, C. p53: a key tumor suppressor, Li-Fraumeni, syndrome, II. VIRUSES AND CANCER, human papilloma viruses (HPVs), E6AP, III. ONCOGENES, protooncogenes,, oncogenes, gain-of-function mutations, A. HER2/neu and breast cancer, HER2/neu, gene amplification, B. Activation of ras: the oncogene most commonly activated in human, tumors, Ras, C. The Myc oncogene is often amplified or overexpressed in cancers, D. Cyclin D can be activated through several different mechanisms, cyclin D, chromosomal inversion, chromosomal, translocation, E. Bcl-2: apoptosis proteins and cancer, IV. mULTISTEP TUmORIGENESIS: mOLECULAR EVENTS ASSOCIATED, WITH THE GENESIS OF COLON CANCER

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