Process Heating: A Special Supplement to Energy Matters

Process Heating 1. A Special Supplement to Energy Matters.Consider the items we use every day items such as decorative fixtures in our homes, the flatware we use for eating, and high-performance engine components in our cars. Although we use them in distinctly different ways, they all have a common manufacturing step that helps transform them into functional, finished goods.

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A Special Supplement to Energy Matters
The Big Picture on Process Heating
That step is process heating. Process heating is vital to nearly all manufacturing processes, supplying heat needed to produce basic materials and commodities. Its use is extensive throughout industry from the smallest manufacturers to Fortune 500 companies—to transform basic materials into the goods we use every day. Whether in the production of materials, such as steel, cement, and composites, or in the manufacture of value-added products, such as electronics, computer chips, cosmetics, and textiles, process heating plays an important part. Figure 1 captures many of the industries that use process heating as a manufacturing step. With its wide and varied industrial use, process heating directly and indirectly affects the employment of an estimated 16 million people in the United States at more than 300,000 establishments with total annual sales and shipments of $3.8 trillion. It is no wonder that heating processes (not including steam generation) consume about 5.2 quads (quadrillion Btu), which is nearly 17% of all energy used by industry. Heat derived from combustion of fossil fuels accounts for 92% of this energy; electricity use accounts for the remaining 8%. Industry\’s heavy reliance on these processes creates a critical need to optimize their performance for improved productivity, energy efficiency, andcompetitiveness.
The Components of Process Heating Systems Process heating systems are made up of five components including: Heating devices that generate and supply heat I Heat transfer devices to move heat from the source to the product I Heat containment devices, such as furnaces, heaters, ovens, and kilns I Heat recovery devices The system can also include a number of other support systems, such as sensors and controls, material handling, process atmosphere supply and control, emission control, safety, and other auxiliary systems. Figure 2 (page 6) illustrates the components of a process heating system. In most applications, heat is supplied by one or more of four heating methods: fuel-fired heating, steam heating, hot oil/air/water heating, and electric heating. The heat is transmitted either directly from the heat source, or indirectly through the furnace walls, or through other means such as jets and recirculating fans. For many industrial applications, 15%-85% of the energy supplied is used for heating the materials. Many factors, such as process temperature, equipment design and operation, and the type of heat recovery systems used, determine the energy efficiency of a process heating system. Hence, industrial process heating systems offer opportunities to save significant amounts of energy. Process Heating Energy Consumption Process heating equipment is operated over a broad temperature range, from 300°F to as high as 3000°F. Consequently, these processes consume large amounts of energy. In fact, energy costs for process heating represent 2%-15% of a product\’s total cost. In U.S. industry, process heating accounts for more direct energy use than any other processes that consume energy during manufacturing. Other energyconsuming operations, such as steam

Steel Glass Basic Chemicals Ores and Minerals Copper and Brass Ceramic Petroleum Paper Aluminum Composite Materials Cement Precious Metal

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