A History of Audi The 1990s

A history of Audi The 1990s. Home. Introduction. Milestones. Audi 100, S4. Audi 80, Cabriolet. Audi RS 2 Avant. Audi A8. Audi A3, A4. Audi A6, S6. Audi Duo …

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A History of Audi The 1990s
Audi\’s expansion and growing confidence became ever more evident through the 1990s, most dramatically with the unveiling of the sensational TT Design Study (right). Besides the TT, which attracted further praise for entering production almost unaltered, there was a proliferation of new models and a continuing emphasis on the introduction of new technology. Audi\’s motorsport efforts won huge quantities of silverware around the world. Several new models took the four rings into uncharted territory, including the A4 Cabriolet, the A3 and the TT. And though it\’s not widely known, Audi was also the first manufacturer in the world to put a hybrid on sale. The technological highlight was the debut of the A8 luxury saloon with its lightweight spaceframe aluminium structure, an ambitious and costly investment that is still paying substantial dividends today. By the end of this decade, Audi were acknowledged – privately, even by some of its closest competitors – to be making the best car interiors in the business. High performance models were an increasingly prominent part of the mix with the debut of the `S\’ series models, which kicked off with the arrival of the potent 230bhp S2 Coupe and, shortly after, the

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit

100-based S4. A real highlight was the RS 2, co-developed with Porsche. The decision to rename the model line-up, from A2 through to A8, meant that the S models would be relabelled too, the S4 eventually becoming a performance version of the A4. But the model that really rammed home Ingolstadt\’s sporting intentions – not to mention its fast-growing reputation for design – was the TT, which turned out be one of the most desired models of the decade from any manufacturer. The TT\’s exterior design introduced Audi\’s new Bauhaus-inspired language in full.

Audi\’s motorsport ambitions continued to grow on track, where it picked up a myriad of championships in touring cars in many European countries, with no fewer than seven in 1996. Yet the most exciting development came at the end of the decade when the R8 sports car appeared for the first time, and picked up third and fifth places at Le Mans – a foretaste of things to come.

Milestones

1990 The seven millionth Audi built since 1965, a Coupe, leaves the assembly line. 1990 Fourth-generation 100 is launched. 1991 The Audi quattro Spyder and Avus concepts are shown at Frankfurt and Tokyo, previewing the aluminium spaceframe to be used for the Audi A8. 1991 The 230bhp S2 quattro Coupe is announced, succeeding the ur-quattro. 1991 The Audi 80 Cabriolet is released. 1991 The first Audi 100-based S4 saloon is revealed, with a 230bhp 20v turbo `five\’. 1991 A second-generation Audi Duo hybrid is announced based on the 100 Avant quattro. 1991 The fourth-generation Audi 80 debuts at Frankfurt, as well as the new 100 Avant. 1992 The three millionth Audi 100 is built. 1992 The S4 version of the 100 launches, replacing the 200 at the top of the range. 1993 The Audi Space Frame concept is unveiled in saloon-form at Frankfurt, previewing the new A8\’s aluminium body.

1993 The high performance Porscheassembled 315bhp RS2 Avant appears. 1994 The ground-breaking aluminiumbodied A8 is announced. 1994 The Audi 100 is facelifted and renamed A6; the S4 becomes the S6. 1994 Audi\’s new naming system sees the 80, 100 and the replacement for the V8 rebadged as A4, A6 and A8. 1994 A new A4 is announced, replacing the long-running Audi 80. 1995 The TT Roadster and Coupe Design Studies are unveiled at the Frankfurt and Tokyo Motor Shows to huge admiration. 1996 The fastest version of Audi\’s flagship car, the S8, goes on sale with 340bhp. 1996 Audi enters a new segment with the pioneering A3 three-door hatch. 1996 A third Duo is announced; the dieselelectric A4 Avant is the first hybrid on sale. 1997 The new A6 arrives, inspired by the Bauhaus themes of the 1995 TT Design Study.

1997 The most sporting A4 yet, the 2.7-litre 265bhp biturbo V6 S4, is unveiled. 1998 The new A6 Avant is announced. 1998 The TT Coupe goes on sale, winning praise for staying true to the TT design study. 1998 Audi acquires Italian supercar manufacturer Lamborghini. 1999 Audi\’s own full-size wind tunnel, with a maximum velocity of 186mph, is opened. 1999 Audi TT production begins in the Gyor facility in Hungary. 1999 The Audi S3 goes on sale with a 210bhp 1.8 turbo engine, and quattro. 1999 The TT Roadster arrives, renewing the barely diminished fervour for the TT. 1999 The radical, lightweight, aluminiumbodied A2 is unveiled. 1999 The 380bhp RS 4 Avant is revealed as the spiritual successor to the RS 2. 1999 Audi\’s high performance credentials are further boosted by the launch of the 340bhp 4.2-litre V8 S6 quattro.

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit

Audi 100, S4

Audi 100 (right)
1991-98 (renamed A6 for 1995 MY) 733,847 built The fourth-generation 100, known internally as the C4, arrived, for the first time with a V6 option. The compact 2.8-litre engine was shorter and lighter than any other V6 in the class and featured a variable length air intake, boosting torque at low engine speeds without compromising its refinement and ability to rev. The optional quattro permanent four-wheel drive remained, of course, and the extensive engine line-up included three five-cylinder diesels. For the 1995 model year the C4 was facelifted, and became the A6 as part of Audi\’s renaming policy.

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit

Audi S4
1991-94 The S4 badge originally debuted on a high performance version of the Audi 100 in 1991, effectively replacing the old 200. It was launched with a 230bhp 2.2-litre 20v `five\’, and from late 1992 was also available with a 280bhp 4.2-litre V8. Both versions were fitted with quattro drivetrains. This car was later renamed S6 as part of Audi\’s revised badging policy.

Audi 80, Cabriolet

Audi 80
1991-96 1,090,690 built An extensively re-engineered version of the B3-generation Audi 80, the B4 used a longer wheelbase and featured more compact rear suspension that not only allowed for a bigger boot but folding rear seats as well. For the first time a V6 engine was offered, in both 2.6 and 2.8 litre capacities, and the upmarket 90 model was dropped. The body-colour frame around the grille, bodycolour bumpers and high-grade interior made this the most upmarket-looking 80 yet.

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit

Audi Cabriolet
1990-2000 71,354 built An elegant, fabric-roofed four-seat convertible, the much anticipated Audi 80 Cabriolet was as elegant as the articulation of its soft-top, which furled beneath a neat tonneau cover. Based on the 1998 Coupe, it soon gained a reputation for being one of the classiest ways to go topless. Engines included a 2.3-litre `five\’. This was Audi\’s first soft-top, a particular feature being the substantially reinforced windscreen surround to provide roll-over protection without the need for ugly additional superstructure.

Audi RS 2 Avant

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit Audi Avant RS 2
1993-94 2896 built This car became a collector\’s item from day one. The first product of Audi\’s performance car dvision quattro GmbH, the part Porscheengineered and assembled RS2 featured a 85PS power boost over the S2 for a dramatic 315PS total. Available only in five-door Avant form, it was powered by a Porsche-modified 20v 2.2-litre turbocharged `five\’, and featured quattro four-wheel drive, upgraded suspension and Porsche-branded Brembo brakes. It was good for 163mph and a 0-62mph time of 4.8sec thanks to its superb traction – according to Autocar magazine, it was quicker to 30mph than a McLaren F1. It was also the first RS-badged Audi, and its wheels and mirrors were identical to the Porsche 911 Turbo\’s. Only 180 right-hand drive examples were made.

Audi A8

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit Audi A8
1994-2003 105,136 built This was a ground-breaking car, principally because it took the Audi Space Frame aluminium construction that the company had been developing for over a decade to the showroom (see Innovations). The switch from steel to aluminium was prompted by Audi\’s growing concern that more stringent crash protection requirements, and the market\’s appetite for more performance and equipment, was making cars heavier. The space frame was a hugely effective way of turning the tide as the A8\’s shell was 140kg lighter than steel. Codenamed D2, the A8 replaced the (D1) V8 saloon, and propelled Audi more emphatically into the luxury car class. Engines eventually included 2.8 and 3.7 V6 petrols, a 4.2 V8, V6 and V8 TDI diesels and, amazingly, a 6.0 W12 petrol. The 4.2, the 6.0 and the diesels all came with quattro all-wheel drive. A tiptronic automatic transmission was another novelty, the first time this transmission had been offered on a saloon car. The A8 was the most luxurious Audi to date, featuring dual-zone climate control, an LED driver information readout and doubleglazed, heat-reflective, noise-reducing windows on some models. Other features included electronic brakeforce distribution (EBD), which ensured even braking on surfaces of varying grip. This was complemented by an electronic differential lock (EDS) on quattro models, which effectively provided mechanical differential locks but without the weight and complication.

Audi A3, A4

Audi A4
1994-2001 1,674,943 built The new A4 was unquestionably an evolution of the Audi 80 that had gone before it in terms of style, but with good reason; this distinctive design theme created the most forwardlooking car in its class. The A4 won particular praise for its handsome looks, as well as a superbly crafted interior. Unusually, it was also lighter than the outgoing 80 and featured an advanced four-link front suspension, much of it fashioned from aluminium, and a novel five-valve cylinder head. The 20-valve 1.8-litre engine could be had in normally aspirated 150bhp form, or with a light-pressure turbo generating 180bhp.

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit

Audi A3
1996-2003 938,248 built The least expensive Audi since the 1974 Audi 50, the A3 was similarly pioneering for wrapping a smaller package in premium clothes. The two models also had a transverse engine layout in common. Initially available only as a three-door to emphasise its sporty character, the A3 was also the first car in this class to offer a five-valves-per-cylinder engine, in this case of 1.8 litres and 125bhp without a turbocharger, and 150bhp with it. The body was fully galvanised, of course, and scored an impressive drag coefficient of just 0.31Cd. A 1.8 Turbo quattro arrived in 1998, with drive transmitted to the rear axle via a Haldex clutch. Power outputs of 150 and 180PS were available with this drivetrain. And a year later year a five-door model appeared following strong demand.

Audi A6, S6

Audi A6
1997-2006 1,165,061 built Now into its fifth generation, codenamed C5, Audi\’s executive entry was more modern-looking than the previous A6, showing distinct signs of the Bauhaus design language that had caused such a wow with the TT Design Study. The taut, large radii curves of its roof and rear bumper, the clean integration of its design details and the way its tail-lights are cut into the rear wing are all redolent of the TT. Technical features included a high aluminium content. Much of the core engine hardware, as well as the front suspension, bonnet, bumper mounts, impact beams and door frames were alloy, making this a lighter car than average. It was also more aerodynamic with an

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit

excellent 0.28Cd drag coefficient. With long-legged gearing, the A6 delivered strong performance and economy, and stayed true to the engineering philosophies established by its ground-breaking 1983 Audi 100 ancestor. A mechanical highlight was the 30-valve 2.8-litre V6 as it had the world\’s first five-valve-per-cylinder V6. Also new was the multitronic continuously variable transmission with many patented

features, initally available with the 2.8 V6. The cabin took another step forward with top quality materials and textures, robust construction and fine detailing. There were no fewer than 22 cabin lights available, illuminating door handles and casting a gentle red glow onto the dash from above, a technique copied by many a manufacturer since. An Avant version followed in 1998, and the allroad arrived in 2000.

Audi S6
1999-2004 A 340bhp V8, quattro, a 6.8sec 0-60mph time and enough room for a family and luggage, cocooned in an interior of fine craftsmanship: that was the alluring package offered by the S6 and S6 Avant. The massive potency of this pair made them among the finest long-distance machines of their day, all bundled with a luxury and practicality that made everyday cars of these rocketships.

Audi Duo

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit Audi Duo
1997 Approx 60 built This was the third iteration of the Duo, and was the first Audi hybrid to make production. Based on an Audi A4 Avant, it was fitted with a 90bhp 1.9-litre TDI diesel driving the front wheels, and a 29bhp Siemens electric motor at the rear, powered by a 22-cell lead-acid battery pack mounted under the loadbay. At low speeds the Duo could run purely in electric mode to allow pollution-free operation in cities, the point being not so much about reducing CO2 emissions as cutting the emission of other pollutants such as hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in smog-afflicted cities such as Los Angeles. Out of town, the Duo switched to TDI power, the engine also recharging the battery pack. The car could also be recharged from the mains, making it the first production plug-in hybrid as well. The Duo could reach 106mph and 60mph in 15.6sec, but more impressive was its 79.4mpg fuel consumption. Field trials of 10 were carried out in Bavaria, ending in 2001, and another 50 or so A4 Duos were built. Production ended in 1999, largely because the car cost about twice as much as the standard model.

Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant

Audi S4 quattro (right)
1997-02 The first S4 was a performance version of the Audi 100, but a new naming system saw the S4 badge applied to a sporting version of the A4 in 1997. Powered by a 30-valve bi-turbo V6 developing 265bhp, the S4 quattro was good for the sprint to 62mph in 5.6sec, and an electronically governed top speed of 155mph. A six-speed manual or a five-speed tiptronic transmission were offered, and the quattro drivetrain featured torsen differentials. An S4 Avant appeared in 1998.

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit

Audi RS 4 Avant
2000-2001 6046 built Another generation of compact, ultra-rapid Avant – there was no saloon version – the 380bhp RS 4 ran with a biturbo 30-valve V6, its civilised demeanour belying a car of truly epic potency, as demonstrated by its capacity for a 4.9sec sprint to 62mph – and it could hit 125mph in just 17sec. The suspension was lowered, the steering rack quickened and ESP anti-skid control was standard. Just 400 come to the UK, all of them pre-sold. The RS 4 was the swansong model of this A4 generation – a spectacular way to sign off – and it was built by Audi\’s quattro GmbH division.

Audi TT Coupe, Roadster

Audi TT Coupe
1998-2006 178,838 built Looking almost identical to the TT Design Study unveiled three years earlier, the TT Coupe did not disappoint, the only significant difference from the concept being the addition of rear side windows.

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit

The TT\’s proportions demanded a transversely mounted `four\’ under the bonnet, as per the Audi A3. The turbocharged 1.8-litre 20-valve engine developed either 180 or 225PS, and quattro was standard, a Haldex clutch transmitting drive to the rear wheels. Although the TT shared a few of its fundamentals with the A3 there were a number of changes, not least a wheelbase shortened by 90mm. The track was also wider and there was a quicker-acting steering rack. New rear suspension, revised front suspension geometry, new dampers, wheels and bigger brakes were also fitted. The 225PS output was achieved with a different turbo, an extra intercooler and altered combustion chambers. Unlike many coupes, the TT had its own dash and instruments, the dials beautifully marked and lit, and the entire ensemble exquisitely highlighted with aluminium.

Audi TT Roadster
1999-06 90,760 built Those loving the romance of roofless motoring were not disappointed by the TT Roadster which, like the Coupe, was little changed from the Design Study. An additional visual flourish came with the option of `Authentic\’ leather trim whose fat stitching was inspired by baseball gloves, making it even more desirable. Both 180 and 225PS models were offered, as with the Coupe, and later a 160PS model was offered with front-drive only.

Audi S3

Audi S3
1999-2003 The hottest version of the A3 yet, the S3 was powered by a 210bhp version of the 1.8 20-valve turbo `four\’, which drove all four wheels via a Haldex clutch.

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit

A wide front air intake, redesigned rear bumper, six-spoke alloy wheels and an upgraded interior identified this classy performance model, which was good for the 62mph sprint in just 6.9sec. Later versions got a 225PS engine with variable valve timing.

Audi A2

Audi A2
1999-2006 176,377 built This radical supermini was years ahead of its time. Lightweight, aerodynamic and unusually packaged, the A2 was practical, roomy, economical – and very striking to look at. Its boldest feature was its aluminium spaceframe body, unique in the class and a major contributor to its low weight. The A2 weighed just 895kg, and two people could easily lift its bare bodyshell. Low-drag aerodynamics also contributed to its excellent fuel economy, the A2\’s clean nose, long roof, abruptly cut tail and rear spoiler helping it to an excellent Cd of 0.28. This figure was cut to 0.25Cd for the A3 1.2 TDI (see Innovations), the so-called `3.0-litre\’ version which could achieve 94mpg. Also unusual were its service items, all of which were packaged for access via the flip-up front grille. Despite all these features the A2 was not as successful as Audi hoped, as many potential customers were unwilling to the pay a premium for technical excellence directed at fuel-saving during an era of considerable affluence. Many of its features, particularly those of the even lighter 1.2 TDI such as stop-start and intelligent transmissions, are only now appearing on contemporary models.

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit

Concept cars

Audi quattro Spyder (top right)
1991 A mid-engined, four-wheel drive sports car, the quattro Spyder was signficant not so much for its concept as its construction, its aluminium body another step on the way to the Audi Space Frame concept that became the Audi A8.

Audi Space Frame concept car (below right)
1993 A large, highly polished silver saloon appeared at the Frankfurt Show as a preview to the A8 luxury saloon, its aluminium construction dramatically advertised by its flashing bodywork. Under the bonnet was a 3.4-litre V8 turbodiesel with direct injection, prompting many sceptics to believe that a diesel V8 wasn\’t merely a pipedream. But like ASF\’s body, a V8 TDI would become very much reality. A couple of months later the same car appeared at Tokyo, this time painted red and fitted with an astonishing W12 petrol engine – and that, too, would make production.

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit

Audi Avus (above right)
1991 The Avus was a dazzling achievement, literally, because its sensuous, aluminium bodywork was polished to the intensity of chromium. The message? That Ingolstadt was about to perform one of its most audacious manoeuvres yet, and put an aluminium-bodied car into series production. That car would be the 1994 A8, but in the meantime, visitors to the 1991 Tokyo Show were agreed that this was the most dramatic machine on show. Named after the famous banked race circuit where the monster pre-war rear-engined, Auto Union racers had scored victories, the Avus was a mid-engined supercar that presaged the 2007 R8 by 16 years. It was powered by a 6.0-litre W12 engine, which also previewed the unit in a real-world offering from Audi – the A8 6.0 W12.

Audi TT and TT Roadster Design Studies (bottom right)
1995 `Stunning\’ is a word too often used to describe reactions to concept cars, but when it came to the TT Design Study shown at the 1995 Frankfurt Show, this adjective really did apply. Here was something genuinely fresh, dramatic and achingly desirable, and Audi would oblige buyers three years later with a production car that looked amazingly close to the concept. A month later the TT Roadster was uncovered at the Tokyo, to similarly admiring crowds.

Innovations

Audi Space Frame (ASF)
Weight is the enemy of performance in a car, whether it be acceleration, fuel efficiency or braking. Any means of saving weight brings benefits on many fronts, but the need to provide more equipment, superior refinement and improved crash protection makes it difficult to achieve. Audi\’s engineering boss Ferdinand Piech recognised the dangers of ballooning weight early. He was concerned at the vicious circle of weight-gain that occurred as more equipment was added, requiring a more potent engine which in turn called for a stronger body, tougher suspension and bigger brakes. Audi\’s engineers concluded that constructing the biggest component to be found in a car – the bodyshell – from lightweight materials would offer wholesale weight savings. They began investigating aluminium bodyshells in the late 1970s, finding a ready partner in the American company, Alcoa. An early experiment saw several 1985 Audi 100 shells stamped in aluminium, though Audi and Alcoa knew the biggest gains would come from a bespoke body. To achieve this, huge computing power was required to calculate the stresses an aluminium body would need to withstand, not only in the car\’s operation but in the event of a crash.

Home Introduction Milestones Audi 100, S4 Audi 80, Cabriolet Audi RS 2 Avant Audi A8 Audi A3, A4 Audi A6, S6 Audi Duo Audi S4 quattro, RS 4 Avant Audi TT Coupe, Roadster Audi S3 Audi A2 Concept cars Innovations Audi motorsport Exit

That the necessary computing power had not previously been available was one reason why aluminium moncoque cars were virtually unknown, the high investment and consequent risk another. Audi\’s solution, developed over a 10year period with Alcoa, was to use a mix of straight and curved closed-section extrusions, usually connected at corners and high-stress locations using pressurecast aluminium elements known as nodes, a construction that afforded further weightsaving. Welding, bonding, riveting and clinching methods were used to assemble the body, which proved to be 140kg lighter than it would have been in steel, using 245 pieces rather than 322. The Space Frame\’s debut on the 1994 Audi A8 paved the way for more aluminiumbodied models, such as today\’s TT and R8.

Five-valve engines
Audi introduced several engines featuring five valves per cylinder, the configuration previously the preserve of supercars, motorcycles and Japanese microcars. It would be the first time this solution would be manufactured on a large scale. The company trialled the technology in a dramatic, record-breaking Audi 200 with a fivecylinder 25-valve engine, in which American race driver Bobby Unser hit 207mph at Talledega. For Audi\’s road cars, this sophisticated solution was more about meeting tightening emission regulations by increasing the engine\’s volumetric efficiency with three inlet valves and two exhaust valves. The first engine with a five-valve head was the 1.8-litre `four\’ debuting in the 1994 A4, and two years later the 2.8-litre V6 would get 30-valve cylinder heads for its appearance in the new A6. Innovations Continued

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