Mustard Hybrids for Low-Cost Biodiesel and Organic Pesticides
Goals of the Mustard Project: â Produce at least 6 billion gallons of mustard oil biodiesel. â Mustard oil biodiesel total production costs <$1.00/gallon of …
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NREL/PO-510-31794, March 2002, WHY ORGANIC PESTICIDES?, Sustainable, Internationally competitive, Environmentally friendly, Fewer commercial chemicals available, High value market, Expanding markets worldwide, ORIGIN OF THE IDEA, Mustard crops have been used as a green manure for hundreds of years. Mustard has been grown to a pre-seed state then plowed down for pesticide, control. The active chemicals in the roots, stems and leaves that provide the pesticide, effect are glucosinolates. Actually, the pesticide compounds are the breakdown products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidinethione, 4-hydroxybenzyl, nitriles, thiocyanates, … The glucosinolate content of the leaves, stems, and roots range from 5 to 20, moles/gram. The glucosinolate content of the seeds range from 90 to well over 250, We hypothesized that the meal would be a more effective pesticide than the, entire plant used as green manure. Early trials with mustard meal as a pesticide were uninspiring, the effect was, too dilute to achieve the desired effect on the target pest populations. NO ONE EVER CONSIDERED INCREASING THE GLUCOSINOLATE CONTENT, OF THE MEAL TO MAKE THE MEAL MORE EFFECTIVE!, NREL and its contractor, the Univ. of Idaho are breeding hybrid mustard, varieties that show that the glucosinolate content of the meal can be increased, by 5x or more, thereby, increasing the effectiveness per pound of product. The glucosinolate breakdown products have a half life of 48 hours and break, down into soil nutrients. Mustard meal can be a safer, more environmentally benign compound to use, compared to methyl bromide and other farm chemicals. Glucosinolate, N-OSO3, D-glucose-S-C, HS04, SH S, Isothiocyanate (ITC), R – C R-C, R – N = C = S, N-OSO3 NH-OSO3, 2-Hydroxy, Oxazolidinethione (OZT), Nitrile R – C = N + S, 4-Hydroxybenzyl, High pH, Thiocyanate R – S – C = N, SCN + R, Epithionitrile, Low pH, N =C – (CH2) n – CH – CH, PREVIOUS LABORATORY STUDIES, PREVIOUS FIELD TRIALS, RENEWABLE DIESEL MUSTARD, RESEARCH PROGRAM, Both fall-planted and spring-planted mustard, hybrids are under development. Laboratory breeding program to develop first, generation hybrids of mustard-rapeseed or, mustard-mustard varieties with high glucosinolate, seed. (Fall 1999, Spring 2000, continuing), Second generation seed greenhouse grown for seed, production. (Summer 2000, continuing), Third generation seed grown in field head-rows, for seed production and agronomic data. (Fall 2000,, continuing), Fourth generation seed grown in multiple locations, for agronomic data. (Fall 2001), Seed varieties are eliminated for low glucosinolate, content, low seed yield, poor agronomic character,, oil content that does not meet biodiesel criteria. (continuously), By fall 2002, enough seed will be available for, pesticide field trials in 2003 with our own varieties. Some laboratory and field trials for pesticide, activity have started this year with suboptimal, mustard seeds (not high glucosinolate seeds, ~250, moles/gr) for data collection. Some limited field trials start this year with, partners – potato, strawberry, foliage, nursery, trees – with suboptimal seed for data collection. Some release efficiency trials are underway. Pesticide registration will be initiated in 2002. Returns to the Farmer, Quantity, Unit, Price or cost Value or Cost, per Acre, $ per unit $ per Acre, Gross Returns, Operating Costs, Returns to the Crusher, Soy Beans, Value $ Revenue, per unit per bu, 1bu contain, Total Operating Costs/acre, 86.16, Mustard Seeds, Developed hybrids with more than 500, moles glucosinolates per, gram of seed meal, concentration appears to be additive, Developed hybrids with high levels of specific types of, glucosinolates with high activity in producing specific (ITC, OZT,, SCN-) breakdown products, Isolated a variety with 90% monounsaturated oil for crossbreeding back into the high glucosinolate varieties, Many varieties meet the eurcic acid requirement of greater than, 2% but less than 20%, Identified 12 or more varieties that could produce more than 2, tons per year per acre seed, Many varieties are drought tolerant and have been produced on, wheat land without irrigation in N.W. Idaho, Economics of mustard seed production looks promising Univ. of, Idaho, Cooperative Extension Service, EBB1-YM-99, Yellow Mustard, Seed. S. Berglund et al.